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Sökning: WFRF:(Wetzel K.)

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  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS semiconductor tracker end-cap module
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 575:3, s. 353-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3.3 mu s buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is 1.4x10(14) cm(-2) in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area similar to 70 cm(2), each having 2 x 768 strips read out by six ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X-0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500e(-) equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800e(-) ENC after irradiation, provides stringent design constraints on both the high-density Cu/Polyimide flex read-out circuit and the ABCD3TA read-out ASICs. Finally, the accuracy of module assembly must not compromise the 16 mu m (r phi) resolution perpendicular to the strip directions or 580 mu m radial resolution coming from the 40 mrad front-back stereo angle. A total of 2210 modules were built to the tight tolerances and specifications required for the SCT. This was 234 more than the 1976 required and represents a yield of 93%. The component flow was at times tight, but the module production rate of 40-50 per week was maintained despite this. The distributed production was not found to be a major logistical problem and it allowed additional flexibility to take advantage of where the effort was available, including any spare capacity, for building the end-cap modules. The collaboration that produced the ATLAS SCT end-cap modules kept in close contact at all times so that the effects of shortages or stoppages at different sites could be rapidly resolved.
  • Schofield, James P. R., et al. (författare)
  • Stratification of asthma phenotypes by airway proteomic signatures
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 144:1, s. 70-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Stratification by eosinophil and neutrophil counts increases our understanding of asthma and helps target therapy, but there is room for improvement in our accuracy in prediction of treatment responses and a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Objective: We sought to identify molecular subphenotypes of asthma defined by proteomic signatures for improved stratification. Methods: Unbiased label-free quantitative mass spectrometry and topological data analysis were used to analyze the proteomes of sputum supernatants from 246 participants (206 asthmatic patients) as a novel means of asthma stratification. Microarray analysis of sputum cells provided transcriptomics data additionally to inform on underlying mechanisms. Results: Analysis of the sputum proteome resulted in 10 clusters (ie, proteotypes) based on similarity in proteomic features, representing discrete molecular subphenotypes of asthma. Overlaying granulocyte counts onto the 10 clusters as metadata further defined 3 of these as highly eosinophilic, 3 as highly neutrophilic, and 2 as highly atopic with relatively low granulocytic inflammation. For each of these 3 phenotypes, logistic regression analysis identified candidate protein biomarkers, and matched transcriptomic data pointed to differentially activated underlying mechanisms. Conclusion: This study provides further stratification of asthma currently classified based on quantification of granulocytic inflammation and provided additional insight into their underlying mechanisms, which could become targets for novel therapies.
  • Ederle, Joerg, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 375:9719, s. 985-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006), Risks of any stroke (65 vs 35 events; HR 1.92, 1.27-2.89) and all-cause death (19 vs seven events; HR 2.76, 1.16-6.56) were higher in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group. Three procedural myocardial infarctions were recorded in the stenting group, all of which were fatal, compared with four, all non-fatal, in the endarterectomy group. There was one event of cranial nerve palsy in the stenting group compared with 45 in the endarterectomy group. There were also fewer haematomas of any severity in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (31 vs 50 events; p=0.0197). Interpretation Completion of long-term follow-up is needed to establish the efficacy of carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy. In the meantime, carotid endarterectomy should remain the treatment of choice for patients suitable for surgery.
  • Hopfner, M., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of MIPAS ClONO2 measurements
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 7, s. 257-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Altitude profiles of ClONO2 retrieved with the IMK (Institut fur Meteorologie und Klimaforschung) science-oriented data processor from MIPAS/Envisat (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding on Envisat) mid-infrared limb emission measurements between July 2002 and March 2004 have been validated by comparison with balloon-borne (Mark IV, FIRS2, MIPAS-B), airborne (MIPAS-STR), ground-based (Spitsbergen, Thule, Kiruna, Harestua, Jungfraujoch, Izana, Wollongong, Lauder), and spaceborne (ACE-FTS) observations. With few exceptions we found very good agreement between these instruments and MIPAS with no evidence for any bias in most cases and altitude regions. For balloon-borne measurements typical absolute mean differences are below 0.05 ppbv over the whole altitude range from 10 to 39 km. In case of ACE-FTS observations mean differences are below 0.03 ppbv for observations below 26 km. Above this altitude the comparison with ACE-FTS is affected by the photochemically induced diurnal variation of ClONO2. Correction for this by use of a chemical transport model led to an overcompensation of the photochemical effect by up to 0.1 ppbv at altitudes of 30-35 km in case of MIPAS-ACE-FTS comparisons while for the balloon-borne observations no such inconsistency has been detected. The comparison of MIPAS derived total column amounts with ground-based observations revealed no significant bias in the MIPAS data. Mean differences between MIPAS and FTIR column abundances are 0.11 +/- 0.12 x 10(14) cm(-2) (1.0 +/- 1.1%) and -0.09 +/- 0.19 x 10(14) cm(-2) (-0.8 +/- 1.7%), depending on the coincidence criterion applied. chi(2) tests have been performed to assess the combined precision estimates of MIPAS and the related instruments. When no exact coincidences were available as in case of MIPAS-FTIR or MIPAS-ACE-FTS comparisons it has been necessary to take into consideration a coincidence error term to account for chi(2) deviations. From the resulting chi(2) profiles there is no evidence for a systematic over/underestimation of the MIPAS random error analysis.
  • Cooper, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Towards Information Assurance (IA) Curricular Guidelines
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2010 ITiCSE Working Group Reports (ITiCSE-WGR’10). ; s. 49-64
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Information assurance and information security are serious worldwide concerns. Computer security is one of the three new focal areas of the ACM/IEEE’s Computer Science Curriculum update in 2008. This ACM/IEEE report describes, as the first of its three recent trends, “the emergence of security as a major area of concern.” [3] The purpose of this working group report is to continue the work of the 2009 working group on information assurance (IA) education. The focus of the 2010 working group is to examine the curricula of existing academic programs, as well as at the key academic governmental and industry IA education standards and guidelines identified by the 2009 IA working group in order to begin defining the IA education space as a first step towards developing curricular guidelines.
  • Dicke, B., et al. (författare)
  • Transferring the entatic-state principle to copper photochemistry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Chemistry. - 1755-4349 .- 1755-4330. ; 10:3, s. 355-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The entatic state denotes a distorted coordination geometry of a complex from its typical arrangement that generates an improvement to its function. The entatic-state principle has been observed to apply to copper electron-transfer proteins and it results in a lowering of the reorganization energy of the electron-transfer process. It is thus crucial for a multitude of biochemical processes, but its importance to photoactive complexes is unexplored. Here we study a copper complex-with a specifically designed constraining ligand geometry-that exhibits metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state lifetimes that are very short. The guanidine-quinoline ligand used here acts on the bis(chelated) copper(I) centre, allowing only small structural changes after photoexcitation that result in very fast structural dynamics. The data were collected using a multimethod approach that featured time-resolved ultraviolet-visible, infrared and X-ray absorption and optical emission spectroscopy. Through supporting density functional calculations, we deliver a detailed picture of the structural dynamics in the picosecond-to-nanosecond time range.
  • Ejiri, M.K., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) Version 1.4 nitrous oxide and methane profiles
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 01480227 .- 21562202. ; 111:D22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study assesses polar stratospheric nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) data from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) retrieved by the Version 1.4 retrieval algorithm. The data were measured between January and October 2003. Vertical profiles of ILAS-II volume mixing ratio (VMR) data are compared with data from two balloon-borne instruments, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B) and the MkIV instrument, as well as with two satellite sensors, the Odin Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) for N(2)O and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) for CH(4). Relative percentage differences between the ILAS-II and balloon/satellite data and their median values are calculated in 10-ppbv-wide bins for N(2)O (from 0 to 400 ppbv) and in 0.05-ppmv-wide bins for CH(4) (from 0 to 2 ppmv) in order to assess systematic differences between the ILAS-II and balloon/satellite data. According to this study, the characteristics of the ILAS-II Version 1.4 N(2)O and CH(4) data differ between hemispheres. For ILAS-II N(2)O VMR larger than 250 ppbv, the ILAS-II N(2)O agrees with the balloon/SMR N(2)O within +/- 20% in both hemispheres. The ILAS-II N(2)O in the VMR range from 30-50 to 250 ppbv (corresponding to altitudes of similar to 17-30 km in the Northern Hemisphere (NH, mainly outside the polar vortex) and similar to 13-21 km in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, mainly inside the polar vortex) is smaller by similar to 10-30% than the balloon/SMR N(2)O. For ILAS-II N(2)O VMR smaller than 30 ppbv (>similar to 21 km) in the SH, the differences between the ILAS-II and SMR N(2)O are within +/- 10 ppbv. For ILAS-II CH(4) VMR larger than 1 ppmv (similar to 30 km) and the ILAS-II CH(4) for its VMR smaller than 1 ppmv (>similar to 25 km) only in the NH, are abnormally small compared to the balloon/satellite data.
  • Grasse, P., et al. (författare)
  • GEOTRACES Intercalibration of the Stable Silicon Isotope Composition of Dissolved Silicic Acid in Seawater
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. - London. - ISSN 0267-9477. ; 32, s. 562-578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first inter-calibration study of the stable silicon isotope composition of dissolved silicic acid in seawater, d30Si(OH)4, is presented as a contribution to the international GEOTRACES program. Eleven laboratories from seven countries analyzed two seawater samples from the North Pacific subtropical gyre (Station ALOHA) collected at 300 m and at 1000 m water depth. Sampling depths were chosen to obtain samples with a relatively low (9 mmol L-1, 300 m) and a relatively high (113 mmol L-1, 1000 m) silicic acid concentration as sample preparation differs for low- and high concentration samples. Data for the 1000 m water sample were not normally distributed so the median is used to represent the central tendency for the two samples. Median d30Si(OH)4 values of +1.66‰ for the low-concentration sample and +1.25‰ for the high-concentration sample were obtained. Agreement among laboratories is overall considered very good; however, small but statistically significant differences among the mean isotope values obtained by different laboratories were detected, likely reflecting inter-laboratory differences in chemical preparation including preconcentration and purification methods together with different volumes of seawater analyzed, andthe use of different mass spectrometers including the Neptune MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher™, Germany), the Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS (Nu Instruments™, Wrexham, UK), and the Finnigan™ (now Thermo Fisher™, Germany) MAT 252 IRMS. Future studies analyzing d30Si(OH)4 in seawater should also analyze and report values for these same two reference waters in order to facilitate comparison of data generated among and within laboratories over time.
  • Martinsson, Svante, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • DNA-barcoding of invasive European earthworms (Clitellata: Lumbricidae) in south-western Australia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biological Invasions. - 1387-3547. ; 17:9, s. 2527-2532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using DNA-barcoding, we studied the diversity of invasive European earthworms in the south-western corner of Australia. We found six Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units belonging to five morphospecies: Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. trapezoides, Dendrobaena cf. attemsi, Eiseniella tetraedra and Octolasion cyaneum. These were variously collected from indigenous forests and/or alienated land. Two cryptic lineages were found within A. trapezoides, and high intraspecific genetic variation was also found within E. tetraedra-variation that had previously been documented in Europe. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of DNA-barcoding for the identification of earthworms, including cryptic species. Correct identification and high taxonomic resolution is crucial for the monitoring of cryptic diversity, detecting new introductions and monitoring spread of established exotic earthworms.
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