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Sökning: WFRF:(White Emily)

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1.
  • Botvinik-Nezer, Rotem, et al. (författare)
  • Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses(1). The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset(2-5). Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed. The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.</p>
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2.
  • Soranno, Patricia A., et al. (författare)
  • LAGOS-NE A multi-scaled geospatial and temporal database of lake ecological context and water quality for thousands of U.S. lakes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: GigaScience. - 2047-217X .- 2047-217X. ; 6:12, s. 1-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many data sets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database. LAGOS-NE accomplishes this goal for lakes in the northeastern-most 17 US states. LAGOS-NE contains data for 51101 lakes and reservoirs larger than 4 ha in 17 lake-rich US states. The database includes 3 datamodules for: lake location and physical characteristics for all lakes; ecological context (i.e., the land use, geologic, climatic, and hydrologic setting of lakes) for all lakes; and in situmeasurements of lake water quality for a subset of the lakes fromthe past 3 decades for approximately 2600–12 000 lakes depending on the variable. The database contains approximately 150000 measures of total phosphorus, 200 000 measures of chlorophyll, and 900 000 measures of Secchi depth. The water quality data were compiled from87 lake water quality data sets fromfederal, state, tribal, and non-profit agencies, university researchers, and citizen scientists. This database is one of the largest andmost comprehensive databases of its type because it includes both in situmeasurements and ecological context data. Because ecological context can be used to study a variety of other questions about lakes, streams, and wetlands, this database can also be used as the foundation for other studies of freshwaters at broad spatial and ecological scales</p>
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3.
  • Yu, Danxia, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic calcium intake and lung cancer survival : A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 26:7, s. 1060-1070
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Little is known about whether prediagnostic nutritional factors may affect survival. We examined the associations of prediagnostic calcium intake from foods and/or supplements with lung cancer survival. Methods: The present analysis included 23,882 incident, primary lung cancer patients from 12 prospective cohort studies. Dietary calcium intake was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline in each cohort and standardized to caloric intake of 2,000 kcal/d for women and 2,500 kcal/d for men. Stratified, multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The 5-year survival rates were 56%, 21%, and 5.7% for localized, regional, and distant stage lung cancer, respectively. Low prediagnostic dietary calcium intake (<500-600 mg/d, less than half of the recommendation) was associated with a small increase in risk of death compared with recommended calcium intakes (800-1,200 mg/d); HR (95% CI) was 1.07 (1.01-1.13) after adjusting for age, stage, histology, grade, smoking status, pack-years, and other potential prognostic factors. The association between low calcium intake and higher lung cancer mortality was evident primarily among localized/regional stage patients, with HR (95% CI) of 1.15 (1.04-1.27). No association was found for supplemental calcium with survival in the multivariable-adjusted model. Conclusions: This large pooled analysis is the first, to our knowledge, to indicate that low prediagnostic dietary calcium intake may be associated with poorer survival among early-stage lung cancer patients. Impact: This multinational prospective study linked low calcium intake to lung cancer prognosis.
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4.
  • Aebersold, Ruedi, et al. (författare)
  • How many human proteoforms are there?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Chemical Biology. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1552-4450 .- 1552-4469. ; 14:3, s. 206-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Despite decades of accumulated knowledge about proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs), numerous questions remain regarding their molecular composition and biological function. One of the most fundamental queries is the extent to which the combinations of DNA-, RNA-and PTM-level variations explode the complexity of the human proteome. Here, we outline what we know from current databases and measurement strategies including mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In doing so, we examine prevailing notions about the number of modifications displayed on human proteins and how they combine to generate the protein diversity underlying health and disease. We frame central issues regarding determination of protein-level variation and PTMs, including some paradoxes present in the field today. We use this framework to assess existing data and to ask the question, "How many distinct primary structures of proteins (proteoforms) are created from the 20,300 human genes?" We also explore prospects for improving measurements to better regularize protein-level biology and efficiently associate PTMs to function and phenotype.</p>
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5.
  • Allwell-Brown, Gbemisola, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in reported antibiotic use among children under 5 years of age with fever, diarrhoea, or cough with fast or difficult breathing across low-income and middle-income countries in 2005-17 a systematic analysis of 132 national surveys from 73 countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Global Health. - ELSEVIER SCI LTD. - 2214-109X. ; 8:6, s. E799-E807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Global assessments of antibiotic consumption have relied on pharmaceutical sales data that do not measure individual-level use, and are often unreliable or unavailable for low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). To help fill this evidence gap, we compiled data from national surveys in LMICs in 2005-17 reporting antibiotic use for sick children under the age of 5 years.</p><p>Methods: Based on 132 Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 73 LMICs, we analysed trends in reported antibiotic use among children under 5 years of age with fever, diarrhoea, or cough with fast or difficult breathing by WHO region, World Bank income classification, and symptom complaint. A logit transformation was used to estimate the outcome using a linear Bayesian regression model. The model included country-level socioeconomic, disease incidence, and health system covariates to generate estimates for country-years with missing values.</p><p>Findings: Across LMICs, reported antibiotic use among sick children under 5 years of age increased from 36.8% (uncertainty interval [UI] 28.8-44.7) in 2005 to 43.1% (33.2-50.5) in 2017. Low-income countries had the greatest relative increase; in these countries, reported antibiotic use for sick children under 5 years of age rose 34% during the study period, from 29.6% (21.2-41.1) in 2005 to 39.5% (32.9-47.6) in 2017, although it remained the lowest of any income group throughout the study period.</p><p>Interpretation: We found a limited but steady increase in reported antibiotic use for sick children under 5 years of age across LMICs in 2005-17, although overlapping UIs complicate interpretation. The increase was largely driven by gains in low-income countries. Our study expands the evidence base from LMICs, where strengthening antibiotic consumption and resistance surveillance is a global health priority.</p>
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6.
  • Allwell-Brown, Gbemisola, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in reported antibiotic use among children under 5 years of age with fever, diarrhoea, or cough with fast or difficult breathing across low-income and middle-income countries in 2005-17: a systematic analysis of 132 national surveys from 73 countries.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Global health. - 2214-109X. ; 8:6, s. e799-e807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global assessments of antibiotic consumption have relied on pharmaceutical sales data that do not measure individual-level use, and are often unreliable or unavailable for low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). To help fill this evidence gap, we compiled data from national surveys in LMICs in 2005-17 reporting antibiotic use for sick children under the age of 5 years.Based on 132 Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 73 LMICs, we analysed trends in reported antibiotic use among children under 5 years of age with fever, diarrhoea, or cough with fast or difficult breathing by WHO region, World Bank income classification, and symptom complaint. A logit transformation was used to estimate the outcome using a linear Bayesian regression model. The model included country-level socioeconomic, disease incidence, and health system covariates to generate estimates for country-years with missing values.Across LMICs, reported antibiotic use among sick children under 5 years of age increased from 36·8% (uncertainty interval [UI] 28·8-44·7) in 2005 to 43·1% (33·2-50·5) in 2017. Low-income countries had the greatest relative increase; in these countries, reported antibiotic use for sick children under 5 years of age rose 34% during the study period, from 29·6% (21·2-41·1) in 2005 to 39·5% (32·9-47·6) in 2017, although it remained the lowest of any income group throughout the study period.We found a limited but steady increase in reported antibiotic use for sick children under 5 years of age across LMICs in 2005-17, although overlapping UIs complicate interpretation. The increase was largely driven by gains in low-income countries. Our study expands the evidence base from LMICs, where strengthening antibiotic consumption and resistance surveillance is a global health priority.Uppsala Antibiotic Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Makerere University, Gothenburg University.
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7.
  • Bien, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - Springer. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 138:4, s. 307-326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n=169) and whole blood (n=922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P=2.2x10(-4), replication P=0.01), and PYGL (discovery P=2.3x10(-4), replication P=6.7x10(-4)). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P&lt;0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.</p>
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8.
  • Bower, Matthew, et al. (författare)
  • Update of PAX2 mutations in renal coloboma syndrome and establishment of a locus-specific database
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794. ; 33:3, s. 66-457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Renal coloboma syndrome, also known as papillorenal syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by ocular and renal malformations. Mutations in the paired-box gene, PAX2, have been identified in approximately half of individuals with classic findings of renal hypoplasia/dysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve. Prior to 2011, there was no actively maintained locus-specific database (LSDB) cataloguing the extent of genetic variation in the PAX2 gene and phenotypic variation in individuals with renal coloboma syndrome. Review of published cases and the collective diagnostic experience of three laboratories in the United States, France, and New Zealand identified 55 unique mutations in 173 individuals from 86 families. The three clinical laboratories participating in this collaboration contributed 28 novel variations in 68 individuals in 33 families, which represent a 50% increase in the number of variations, patients, and families published in the medical literature. An LSDB was created using the Leiden Open Variation Database platform: www.lovd.nl/PAX2. The most common findings reported in this series were abnormal renal structure or function (92% of individuals), ophthalmological abnormalities (77% of individuals), and hearing loss (7% of individuals). Additional clinical findings and genetic counseling implications are discussed.
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9.
  • Brownstein, Catherine A., et al. (författare)
  • An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 15:3, s. R53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results: A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions: The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.</p>
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10.
  • Brownstein, Catherine A., et al. (författare)
  • An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 15:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results: A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions: The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.</p>
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