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Sökning: WFRF:(Wickland Kimberly P.)

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1.
  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
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2.
  • Schuster, Paul F., et al. (författare)
  • Permafrost Stores a Globally Significant Amount of Mercury
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 45:3, s. 1463-1471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Changing climate in northern regions is causing permafrost to thaw with major implications for the global mercury (Hg) cycle. We estimated Hg in permafrost regions based on in situ measurements of sediment total mercury (STHg), soil organic carbon (SOC), and the Hg to carbon ratio (R-HgC) combined with maps of soil carbon. We measured a median STHg of 43 +/- 30 ng Hg g soil(-1) and a median R-HgC of 1.6 +/- 0.9 mu g Hg g C-1, consistent with published results of STHg for tundra soils and 11,000 measurements from 4,926 temperate, nonpermafrost sites in North America and Eurasia. We estimate that the Northern Hemisphere permafrost regions contain 1,656 +/- 962 Gg Hg, of which 793 +/- 461 Gg Hg is frozen in permafrost. Permafrost soils store nearly twice as much Hg as all other soils, the ocean, and the atmosphere combined, and this Hg is vulnerable to release as permafrost thaws over the next century. Existing estimates greatly underestimate Hg in permafrost soils, indicating a need to reevaluate the role of the Arctic regions in the global Hg cycle.
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3.
  • Bäckstrand, Kristina, 1979- (författare)
  • Carbon gas biogeochemistry of a northern peatland - in a dynamic permafrost landscape
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is about biogeochemical processes of a northern peatland and their importance as a link between the climate and the terrestrial system. Increased temperatures on a global level, and particularly in the Arctic, have led to melting permafrost and changes in hydrology. In turn, this affect the natural exchange of radiatively important trace gases between land and atmosphere that may reinforce climate change. The aim of this thesis is to increase the understanding about the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) occurring in northern peatlands, to decrease uncertainty about their future carbon (C) balance. In order to pursue this aim, we designed a study that allowed measuring the C exchange at a subarctic peatland, accounting for spatial and temporal analysis at several levels. The field site was the Stordalen mire, northern Sweden. Exchange rates of CO2, and total hydrocarbons (THCs; CH4 and NMVOCs) were measured using an automatic chamber system for up to six years, at three different types of vegetation communities and permafrost regimes. The gas exchange was found to relate to different environmental and biological variables at different vegetation communities and at different temporal scales. Differences in flux rates and controls between sites could be explained with biological and environmental variables in a better way than the seasonal and interannual variability within a site.Snow season flux measurements were determined to be of high importance regarding the annual C budget. By excluding the snow season, the potential C source strength of a peatland is likely to be underestimated. The importance of combining the THCs with the CO2 to estimate the annual C balance was demonstrated as THC could be sufficient to shift the mire from a sink to a source of C to the atmosphere. Again, the C source strength may be significantly underestimated if only focusing on CO2 fluxes in wet peatland environments.
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4.
  • Turetsky, Merritt R. (författare)
  • A synthesis of methane emissions from 71 northern, temperate, and subtropical wetlands
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 20:7, s. 2183-2197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane. Here, we assess controls on methane flux using a database of approximately 19 000 instantaneous measurements from 71 wetland sites located across subtropical, temperate, and northern high latitude regions. Our analyses confirm general controls on wetland methane emissions from soil temperature, water table, and vegetation, but also show that these relationships are modified depending on wetland type (bog, fen, or swamp), region (subarctic to temperate), and disturbance. Fen methane flux was more sensitive to vegetation and less sensitive to temperature than bog or swamp fluxes. The optimal water table for methane flux was consistently below the peat surface in bogs, close to the peat surface in poor fens, and above the peat surface in rich fens. However, the largest flux in bogs occurred when dry 30-day averaged antecedent conditions were followed by wet conditions, while in fens and swamps, the largest flux occurred when both 30-day averaged antecedent and current conditions were wet. Drained wetlands exhibited distinct characteristics, e. g. the absence of large flux following wet and warm conditions, suggesting that the same functional relationships between methane flux and environmental conditions cannot be used across pristine and disturbed wetlands. Together, our results suggest that water table and temperature are dominant controls on methane flux in pristine bogs and swamps, while other processes, such as vascular transport in pristine fens, have the potential to partially override the effect of these controls in other wetland types. Because wetland types vary in methane emissions and have distinct controls, these ecosystems need to be considered separately to yield reliable estimates of global wetland methane release.
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