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Sökning: WFRF:(Wieslander Anna)

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2.
  • Bryland, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Citrate treatment reduces endothelial death and inflammation under hyperglycaemic conditions.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. - : SAGE Publications. - 1752-8984. ; 9:1, s. 42-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyperglycaemia and glucose degradation products (GDPs) are closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic patients, a condition that leads to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular problems. We evaluated the effect of citrate and gluconate on glucose- and GDP-induced endothelial inflammation by measuring changes in viability, inflammation and function in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The extent of apoptosis/necrosis was measured by flow cytometry and visualised with confocal microscopy by staining with annexin V or propidium iodide, respectively. Protein kinase C-βII (PKC-βII) activation was evaluated with Western blotting. Incubation with glucose (30 mM) and GDP (50 µM) significantly increased PKC-βII expression, endothelial cell death and inflammation. The addition of citrate decreased hyperglycaemia-induced apoptosis (p = 0.021), necrosis (p = 0.04) and reduced PKC-βII expression (p = 0.021) down to background levels. Citrate improved endothelial function by reducing the inflammatory markers(p = 0.01) and by decreasing neutrophil diapedesis (p = 0.012). These results suggest that citrate may have therapeutic potential by reducing hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial inflammation and abolishing endothelial dysfunction.
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3.
  • Bryland, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Infusion fluids contain harmful glucose degradation products.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine. - : Springer. - 0342-4642. ; May 4, s. 1213-1220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Glucose degradation products (GDPs) are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that cause cellular damage and inflammation. We examined the content of GDPs in commercially available glucose-containing infusion fluids and investigated whether GDPs are found in patients' blood. METHODS: The content of GDPs was examined in infusion fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. To investigate whether GDPs also are found in patients, we included 11 patients who received glucose fluids (standard group) during and after their surgery and 11 control patients receiving buffered saline (control group). Blood samples were analyzed for GDP content and carboxymethyllysine (CML), as a measure of AGE formation. The influence of heat-sterilized fluids on cell viability and cell function upon infection was investigated. RESULTS: All investigated fluids contained high concentrations of GDPs, such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG). Serum concentration of 3-DG increased rapidly by a factor of eight in patients receiving standard therapy. Serum CML levels increased significantly and showed linear correlation with the amount of infused 3-DG. There was no increase in serum 3-DG or CML concentrations in the control group. The concentration of GDPs in most of the tested fluids damaged neutrophils, reducing their cytokine secretion, and inhibited microbial killing. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that normal standard fluid therapy involves unwanted infusion of GDPs. Reduction of the content of GDPs in commonly used infusion fluids may improve cell function, and possibly also organ function, in intensive-care patients.
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4.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, 1981- (författare)
  • Health effects of air pollution in Iceland : respiratory health in volcanic environments
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Air pollution has adverse effects on human health. The respiratory system is the most exposed and short-term changes in air pollution levels have been associated with worsening of asthma symptoms and increased rates of heart attacks and stroke. Air pollution in cities due to traffic is the major concern, as many people are exposed. However, natural sources of air pollution such as natural dust storms and ash from volcanic eruptions can also compromise human health. Exposure to volcanic eruptions and other natural hazards can also threaten mental health. Air pollution has not been extensively studied in Iceland, in spite of the presence of several natural pollution sources and a sizeable car fleet in the capital area.The aim of this thesis was to determine if there was a measurable effect on health which could be attributed to air pollution in Iceland. This aim was pursued along two paths; time series studies using register data aimed to determine the short-term association between daily variation in air pollution and on one hand daily dispensing of anti-asthma medication or the daily number of emergency room visits and emergency admissions for cardiopulmonary causes and stroke. The other method was to investigate if exposure to the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption was associated with adverse health outcomes, either at the end of the eruption, or 6 months later.In paper I time series regression was used to investigate the association between the daily number of individuals who were dispensed anti-asthma medication and levels of the air pollutants particle matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during the preceding days. For the study period 2006-9, there were significant associations between the daily mean of PM10 and H2S and the sales of anti-asthma medication 3 to 5 days later. Giving the exposure as the highest daily one-hour mean gave more significant results. Air pollution negatively affected the respiratory health of asthma medication users, prompting them to refill their prescriptions before they had originally intended to.In paper II the main outcome was the number of individuals seeking help at Landspitali University Hospital emergency room for cardiopulmonary disease or stroke. Time series regression was used to identify the lag that gave the best predictive power, and models were run for data for 2003-9 pollutants PM10, NO2, and O3. O3 was significantly associated with the number of emergency hospital visits the same day and two days later in all models, and both for men, women and the elderly. Only emergency hospital visits of the elderly were associated with NO2, and there were no associations with PM10.In paper III the aim was to investigate if the health effects of PM10 were affected by the addition of volcanic ash from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn to PM10 in the capital area. Time series regression of emergency hospital visits and PM10 before and after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption showed that the effect tended to be higher after the eruption, but the results were not significant. Analysis with a binary indicator for high levels of PM10 from volcanic ash and other sources showed that volcanic ash was associated with increased emergency hospital visits. There were no associations with high levels of PM10 from other sources.In paper IV, the health of the population exposed to the ongoing eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 was investigated thoroughly. Lung function in adults was better than in a reference group from the capital area, though many reported sensory organ irritation symptoms and symptoms of stress and mental unhealth, especially those with underlying diseases.Paper V report the results from a questionnaire study which was carried out six months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The study population comprised a cohort of south Icelanders exposed to the eruption to varying degrees and a reference group from north Iceland. Respiratory and eye symptoms were much more common in south Icelanders than in the reference group, after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Mental unhealth rates had declined considerably.In the studies, we found that urban air pollution and natural particles have short-term effects on anti-asthma medication dispensing and emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Exposure to natural particles in the form of volcanic dust was associated with increased respiratory symptoms in a very exposed population. There were indications that volcanic ash particles were associated with increased emergency hospital visits in the following days.
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5.
  • Gunnbjornsdottir, M. I., et al. (författare)
  • Obesity and nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux are related to onset of asthma and respiratory symptoms
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Eur Respir J. ; 24:1, s. 116-21.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have identified obesity as a risk factor for asthma in both children and adults. An increased prevalence of asthma in subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome has also been reported. The aim of this investigation was to study obesity, nocturnal GOR and snoring as independent risk factors for onset of asthma and respiratory symptoms in a Nordic population. In a 5-10 yr follow-up study of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Estonia, a postal questionnaire was sent to previous respondents. A total of 16,191 participants responded to the questionnaire. Reported onset of asthma, wheeze and night-time symptoms as well as nocturnal GOR and habitual snoring increased in prevalence along with the increase in body mass index (BMI). After adjusting for nocturnal GOR, habitual snoring and other confounders, obesity (BMI >30) remained significantly related to the onset of asthma, wheeze and night-time symptoms. Nocturnal GOR was independently related to the onset of asthma and in addition, both nocturnal GOR and habitual snoring were independently related to onset of wheeze and night-time symptoms. This study adds evidence to an independent relationship between obesity, nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux and habitual snoring and the onset of asthma and respiratory symptoms in adults.
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7.
  • Kogevinas, Manolis, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to substances in the workplace and new-onset asthma : an international prospective population-based study (ECRHS-II)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 370:9584, s. 336-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The role of exposure to substances in the workplace in new-onset asthma is not well characterised in population-based studies. We therefore aimed to estimate the relative and attributable risks of new-onset asthma in relation to occupations, work-related exposures, and inhalation accidents. Methods We studied prospectively 6837 participants from 13 countries who previously took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (1990-95) and did not report respiratory symptoms or a history of asthma at the time of the first study. Asthma was assessed by methacholine challenge test and by questionnaire data on asthma symptoms. Exposures were defined by high-risk occupations, an asthma-specific job exposure matrix with additional expert judgment, and through self-report of acute inhalation events. Relative risks for new onset asthma were calculated with log-binomial models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and study Centre. Findings A significant excess asthma risk was seen after exposure to substances known to cause occupational asthma (Relative risk=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, p=0.017). Risks were highest for asthma defined by bronchial hyper-reactivity in addition to symptoms (2.4,1.3-4.6, p=0.008). Of common occupations, a significant excess risk of asthma was seen for nursing (2.2,1.3-4.0, p=0.007). Asthma risk was also increased in participants who reported an acute symptomatic inhalation event such as fire, mixing cleaning products, or chemical spills (RR=3.3, 95% CI 1.0-11.1, p=0.051). The population-attributable risk for adult asthma due to occupational exposures ranged from 10% to 25%, equivalent to an incidence of new-onset occupational asthma of 250-300 cases per million people per year. Interpretation Occupational exposures account for a substantial proportion of adult asthma incidence. The increased risk of asthma after inhalation accidents suggests that workers who have such accidents should be monitored closely.
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8.
  • Kogevinas, M., et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to substances in the workplace and new-onset asthma: an international prospective population-based study (ECRHS-II)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 370:9584, s. 336-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to substances in the workplace in new-onset asthma is not well characterised in population-based studies. We therefore aimed to estimate the relative and attributable risks of new-onset asthma in relation to occupations, work-related exposures, and inhalation accidents. METHODS: We studied prospectively 6837 participants from 13 countries who previously took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (1990-95) and did not report respiratory symptoms or a history of asthma at the time of the first study. Asthma was assessed by methacholine challenge test and by questionnaire data on asthma symptoms. Exposures were defined by high-risk occupations, an asthma-specific job exposure matrix with additional expert judgment, and through self-report of acute inhalation events. Relative risks for new onset asthma were calculated with log-binomial models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and study centre. FINDINGS: A significant excess asthma risk was seen after exposure to substances known to cause occupational asthma (Relative risk=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, p=0.017). Risks were highest for asthma defined by bronchial hyper-reactivity in addition to symptoms (2.4, 1.3-4.6, p=0.008). Of common occupations, a significant excess risk of asthma was seen for nursing (2.2, 1.3-4.0, p=0.007). Asthma risk was also increased in participants who reported an acute symptomatic inhalation event such as fire, mixing cleaning products, or chemical spills (RR=3.3, 95% CI 1.0-11.1, p=0.051). The population-attributable risk for adult asthma due to occupational exposures ranged from 10% to 25%, equivalent to an incidence of new-onset occupational asthma of 250-300 cases per million people per year. INTERPRETATION: Occupational exposures account for a substantial proportion of adult asthma incidence. The increased risk of asthma after inhalation accidents suggests that workers who have such accidents should be monitored closely.
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9.
  • Olsson, Caroline, 1970, et al. (författare)
  • Initial experience with introducing national guidelines for CT- and MRI-based delineation of organs at risk in radiotherapy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology. - 2405-6316. ; 11, s. 88-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The Authors A fundamental problem in radiotherapy is the variation of organ at risk (OAR) volumes. Here we present our initial experience in engaging a large Radiation Oncology (RO) community to agree on national guidelines for OAR delineations. Our project builds on associated standardization initiatives and invites professionals from all radiotherapy departments nationwide. Presently, one guideline (rectum) has successfully been agreed on by a majority vote. Reaching out to all relevant parties in a timely manner and motivating funding agencies to support the work represented early challenges. Population-based data and a scalable methodological approach are major strengths of the proposed strategy.
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10.
  • Samverkan mellan polis och universitet : Studentarbeten från kursen Kriminologi: Tillämpning
  • 2018
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • En förutsättning för ett effektivt brottsförebyggande och trygghetsskapande arbete är att det baseras på kunskap om vilka åtgärder som fungerar: var, när, hur och framförallt varför. Medborgarlöften en viktig del av Polisens arbete med att öka tryggheten och förebygga brott. I den här rapporten finns arbeten skrivna av studenter på Kriminologiprogrammet vid Malmö universitet i vilka de granskat, utvärderat och givit förslag kring Polisområde Malmös medborgarlöften. Arbetet har genomförts i nära samarbete med kommunpoliserna i Malmö vilket inneburit ett kontinuerligt kunskapsutbyte mellan studenterna och polisen kring den lokala problembilden. Utöver det har två studentgrupper arbetat på uppdrag av polisens Utvecklingscentrum Syd med att granska implementeringen av medborgarlöften ur ett nationellt perspektiv. Utgångspunkten för samarbetet är en samverkansöverenskommelse mellan Institutionen för kriminologi, Malmö universitet, och Polisområde Malmö. Syftet är att ge studenterna insyn i polisens arbete och att studenterna ska ge polisen stöd i hur deras brottsförebyggande och trygghetsskapande arbete kan bli mer kunskapsbaserat.
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