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  • Speliotes, Elizabeth K., et al. (författare)
  • Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:11, s. 53-937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and similar to 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 x 10(-8)), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.
  • Lango Allen, Hana, et al. (författare)
  • Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 467:7317, s. 832-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait. The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P < 0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented among variants that alter amino-acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain approximately 10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to approximately 16% of phenotypic variation (approximately 20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits fully, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that implicate biologically relevant genes and pathways.
  • Conti, David, V, et al. (författare)
  • Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 53:1, s. 65-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across different populations highlights new risk loci and provides a genetic risk score that can stratify prostate cancer risk across ancestries.
  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
  • Nilsson, Andreas E, et al. (författare)
  • Age at surgery, educational level and long-term urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BJU international. - 1464-410X .- 1464-4096.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Type - Harm (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Several factors including age, body mass index (BMI), prostate size and previous transurethral resection of the prostate have been suggested to play a part in determining the risk of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Results relating to the importance of each factor have been conflicting, so we need more data to be able to identify the relevant factors. In this consecutive series with information from 1179 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy, age at the time of surgery, educational level, respiratory disease and salvage radiation therapy predicted the occurrence of long-term urinary incontinence. Increasing age predicted the risk in an exponential manner, and the data indicate a correlation across all educational levels. There was no certain association between previous transurethral resection of the prostate, increased BMI or prostate size and urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: • To identify predictors for long-term urinary leakage after radical prostatectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: • A consecutive series of 1411 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (open surgery or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery) at Karolinska University Hospital between 2002 and 2006 were invited to complete a study-specific questionnaire. • Urinary leakage was defined as use of two or more pads per day. RESULTS: • Questionnaires were received from 1288 (91%) patients with a median follow-up of 2.2 years. Age at surgery predicts in an exponential manner long-term urinary incontinence at follow-up with an estimated relative increase of 6% per year. • Among the oldest patients, 19% had urinary incontinence compared with 6% in the youngest age group, translating to a prevalence ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-8.1). • Low educational level, as compared with high, yielded an increased age-adjusted prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI, 1.7-3.9). • Patients who had undergone salvage radiation therapy had an increased prevalence of urinary incontinence (2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), as did those with respiratory disease (2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4). • Body mass index, prostate weight, presence of diabetes or previous transurethral resection did not appear to influence the prevalence of urinary incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: • In this series, a patient's age at radical prostatectomy influenced, in an exponential manner, his risk of long-term urinary incontinence. • Other predictors are low educational level, salvage radiation therapy and respiratory disease. • Intervention studies are needed to understand if these data are relevant to the prevalence of urinary leakage if a radical prostatectomy is postponed in an active monitoring programme.
  • Schumacher, Martin C., et al. (författare)
  • Transurethral Resection of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Transitional Cell Cancers With or Without 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Under Visible and Fluorescent Light: Results of a Prospective, Randomised, Multicentre Study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 57:2, s. 293-299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fluorescent light (FL)-guided cystoscopy induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been reported to detect more tumours compared with standard white-light (WL) cystoscopy. Most reports are from single centres with relatively few patients. Objective: To evaluate whether 5-ALA-induced FL and WL cystoscopy at transurethral resection (TUR) is superior compared with standard procedures under WL only with respect to tumour recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Design, setting, and participants: This randomised, multicentre, observer- and pathologist-blinded, prospective phase 3 clinical trial enrolled 300 patients, and of those patients, 153 were randomised to FL cystoscopy and 147 were randomised to standard WL cystoscopy. Intervention: All patients were first inspected under WL and all lesions were recorded. Patients randomised to FL underwent a second inspection. TUR was carried out in both groups. Measurements: Control cystoscopy under WL was performed in all patients every 3 mo during the first year after randomisation and biannually thereafter. Results and limitations: At the first TUR, the mean number of resection specimens per patient was 2.5 (FL: 2.5; WL: 2.4; p = 0.37) and the resulting mean number of resected tumours was 1.7 with FL and 1.8 with WL (p = 0.85). More patients were diagnosed with carcinoma in situ (CIS) in the WL group (13%) than in the FL group (4.2%). Within-patient comparison of FL patients only showed that FL detected more lesions than WL. Tumour lesions solely detected by FL cystoscopy that would not otherwise be detected by WL cystoscopy included 52% dysplasia, 33% CIS, 18% papillary neoplasms, 13% pT1, and 7% pTa. Outcome at 12 mo did not show any difference between groups with regard to recurrence-free and progression-free survival rates. Conclusions: In this prospective, randomised, multi-institutional study, we found no clinical advantage of FL cystoscopy compared with WL cystoscopy and TUR. (c) 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Spjuth, Ola, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • E-Science technologies in a workflow for personalized medicine using cancer screening as a case study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMIA Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. - : Oxford University Press. - 1067-5027 .- 1527-974X. ; 24:5, s. 950-957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We provide an e-Science perspective on the workflow from risk factor discovery and classification of disease to evaluation of personalized intervention programs. As case studies, we use personalized prostate and breast cancer screenings.Materials and Methods: We describe an e-Science initiative in Sweden, e-Science for Cancer Prevention and Control (eCPC), which supports biomarker discovery and offers decision support for personalized intervention strategies. The generic eCPC contribution is a workflow with 4 nodes applied iteratively, and the concept of e-Science signifies systematic use of tools from the mathematical, statistical, data, and computer sciences.Results: The eCPC workflow is illustrated through 2 case studies. For prostate cancer, an in-house personalized screening tool, the Stockholm-3 model (S3M), is presented as an alternative to prostate-specific antigen testing alone. S3M is evaluated in a trial setting and plans for rollout in the population are discussed. For breast cancer, new biomarkers based on breast density and molecular profiles are developed and the US multicenter Women Informed to Screen Depending on Measures (WISDOM) trial is referred to for evaluation. While current eCPC data management uses a traditional data warehouse model, we discuss eCPC-developed features of a coherent data integration platform.Discussion and Conclusion: E-Science tools are a key part of an evidence-based process for personalized medicine. This paper provides a structured workflow from data and models to evaluation of new personalized intervention strategies. The importance of multidisciplinary collaboration is emphasized. Importantly, the generic concepts of the suggested eCPC workflow are transferrable to other disease domains, although each disease will require tailored solutions.
  • Adams, Charleen, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers of Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer in the ProtecT Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.
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