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1.
  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
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2.
  • Furukawa, Toshi A., et al. (författare)
  • Dismantling, optimising, and personalising internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression : a systematic review and component network meta-analysis using individual data
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Lancet psychiatry. - London, United Kingdom : Elsevier. - 2215-0374 .- 2215-0366. ; 8:6, s. 500-511
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Findings We identified 76 RCTs, including 48 trials contributing individual participant data (11 704 participants) and 28 trials with aggregate data (6474 participants). The participants' weighted mean age was 42.0 years and 12 406 (71%) of 17 521 reported were women. There was suggestive evidence that behavioural activation might be beneficial (iMD -1.83 [95% credible interval (CrI) -2.90 to -0.80]) and that relaxation might be harmful (1.20 [95% CrI 0.17 to 2.27]). Baseline severity emerged as the strongest prognostic factor for endpoint depression. Combining human and automated encouragement reduced dropouts from treatment (incremental odds ratio, 0.32 [95% CrI 0.13 to 0.93]). The risk of bias was low for the randomisation process, missing outcome data, or selection of reported results in most of the included studies, uncertain for deviation from intended interventions, and high for measurement of outcomes. There was moderate to high heterogeneity among the studies and their components. 511
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3.
  • Dupuis, Josee, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:2, s. 32-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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4.
  • Karyotaki, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Do guided internet-based interventions result in clinically relevant changes for patients with depression? An individual participant data meta-analysis.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical psychology review. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 1873-7811 .- 0272-7358. ; 63, s. 80-92
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about clinically relevant changes in guided Internet-based interventions for depression. Moreover, methodological and power limitations preclude the identification of patients' groups that may benefit more from these interventions. This study aimed to investigate response rates, remission rates, and their moderators in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of guided Internet-based interventions for adult depression to control groups using an individual patient data meta-analysis approach. Literature searches in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library resulted in 13,384 abstracts from database inception to January 1, 2016. Twenty-four RCTs (4889 participants) comparing a guided Internet-based intervention with a control group contributed data to the analysis. Missing data were multiply imputed. To examine treatment outcome on response and remission, mixed-effects models with participants nested within studies were used. Response and remission rates were calculated using the Reliable Change Index. The intervention group obtained significantly higher response rates (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 2.17-2.85) and remission rates compared to controls (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 2.07-2.79). The moderator analysis indicated that older participants (OR = 1.01) and native-born participants (1.66) were more likely to respond to treatment compared to younger participants and ethnic minorities respectively. Age (OR = 1.01) and ethnicity (1.73) also moderated the effects of treatment on remission.Moreover, adults with more severe depressive symptoms at baseline were more likely to remit after receiving internet-based treatment (OR = 1.19). Guided Internet-based interventions lead to substantial positive treatment effects on treatment response and remission at post-treatment. Thus, such interventions may complement existing services for depression and potentially reduce the gap between the need and provision of evidence-based treatments.
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6.
  • Dods, Robert, 1989, et al. (författare)
  • Ultrafast structural changes within a photosynthetic reaction centre.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Nature. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 589:7841, s. 310-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Photosynthetic reaction centres harvest the energy content of sunlight by transporting electrons across an energy-transducing biological membrane. Here we use time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography1 using an X-ray free-electron laser2 to observe light-induced structural changes in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Blastochloris viridis on a timescale of picoseconds. Structural perturbations first occur at the special pair of chlorophyll molecules of the photosynthetic reaction centre that are photo-oxidized by light. Electron transfer to the menaquinone acceptor on the opposite side of the membrane induces a movement of this cofactor together with lower amplitude protein rearrangements. These observations reveal how proteins use conformational dynamics to stabilize the charge-separation steps of electron-transfer reactions.
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8.
  • Ling, G., et al. (författare)
  • PATCHED and p53 gene alterations in sporadic and hereditary basal cell cancer
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Oncogene. - 0950-9232 .- 1476-5594. ; 20:53, s. 7770-7778
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is widely accepted that disruption of the hedgehog-patched pathway is a key event in development of basal cell cancer. In addition to patched gene alterations, p53 gene mutations are also frequent in basal cell cancer. We determined loss of heterozygosity in the patched and p53 loci as well as sequencing the p53 gene in tumors both from sporadic and hereditary cases. A total of 70 microdissected samples from tumor and adjacent skin were subjected to PCR followed by fragment analysis and DNA sequencing. We found allelic loss in the patched locus in 6/8 sporadic basal cell cancer and 17/19 hereditary tumors. All sporadic and 7/20 hereditary tumors showed p53 gene mutations. Loss of heterozygosity in the p53 locus was rare in both groups. The p53 mutations detected in hereditary tumors included rare single nucleotide deletions and unusual double-base substitutions compared to the typical ultraviolet light induced missense mutations found in sporadic tumors. Careful microdissection of individual tumors revealed genetically linked subclones with different p53 and/or patched genotype providing an insight on time sequence of genetic events. The high frequency and co-existence of genetic alterations in the patched and p53 genes suggest that both these genes are important in the development of basal cell cancer.
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9.
  • Persson, A. E., et al. (författare)
  • The mutagenic effect of ultraviolet-A1 on human skin demonstrated by sequencing the p53 gene in single keratinocytes
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. - 0905-4383 .- 1600-0781. ; 18:6, s. 287-293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Sun exposure is accepted as the major risk factor for developing skin cancer, the most common cancer in the western world. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is considered the causative agent, but recently several findings suggest a role also for ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation. Repeated suberythemal doses of ultraviolet-A1 (UV-A1) on healthy human skin induce an increase of p53 immunoreactive cells in epidermis, which may indicate cell cycle arrest and/or occurrence of p53 mutations. Methods: We have investigated the possible mutagenic effect of UV-A1 on skin by sequencing exons 4-11 and adjacent intron sequence of the p53 gene in immunoreactive single cells from three healthy individuals. Previously unexposed buttock skin was irradiated three times a week for 2 weeks with physiological fluences (40 J/cm(2)) of UV-A1. Punch biopsies were taken before and at different time-points after the exposure, and from these single p53 immunoreactive cells were isolated by using laser-assisted microdissection. Results: Three mutations - all being indicative of oxidative damage and most likely related to UV-A exposure were found among the 37 single cells from exposed skin, whereas no mutations were found in the 22 single cells taken before exposure. Conclusions: The findings indicate a mutagenic effect of low-dose UV-A1 on healthy human skin, which further demonstrates the importance of considering UV-A when taking protective measures against skin cancer.
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