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  • Achberger, Christine, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2011
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. - 0003-0007. ; 93:7, s. S1-S263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale climate patterns influenced temperature and weather patterns around the globe in 2011. In particular, a moderate-to-strong La Nina at the beginning of the year dissipated during boreal spring but reemerged during fall. The phenomenon contributed to historical droughts in East Africa, the southern United States, and northern Mexico, as well the wettest two-year period (2010-11) on record for Australia, particularly remarkable as this follows a decade-long dry period. Precipitation patterns in South America were also influenced by La Nina. Heavy rain in Rio de Janeiro in January triggered the country's worst floods and landslides in Brazil's history. The 2011 combined average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was the coolest since 2008, but was also among the 15 warmest years on record and above the 1981-2010 average. The global sea surface temperature cooled by 0.1 degrees C from 2010 to 2011, associated with cooling influences of La Nina. Global integrals of upper ocean heat content for 2011 were higher than for all prior years, demonstrating the Earth's dominant role of the oceans in the Earth's energy budget. In the upper atmosphere, tropical stratospheric temperatures were anomalously warm, while polar temperatures were anomalously cold. This led to large springtime stratospheric ozone reductions in polar latitudes in both hemispheres. Ozone concentrations in the Arctic stratosphere during March were the lowest for that period since satellite records began in 1979. An extensive, deep, and persistent ozone hole over the Antarctic in September indicates that the recovery to pre-1980 conditions is proceeding very slowly. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased by 2.10 ppm in 2011, and exceeded 390 ppm for the first time since instrumental records began. Other greenhouse gases also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 30% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Most ozone depleting substances continued to fall. The global net ocean carbon dioxide uptake for the 2010 transition period from El Nino to La Nina, the most recent period for which analyzed data are available, was estimated to be 1.30 Pg C yr(-1), almost 12% below the 29-year long-term average. Relative to the long-term trend, global sea level dropped noticeably in mid-2010 and reached a local minimum in 2011. The drop has been linked to the La Nina conditions that prevailed throughout much of 2010-11. Global sea level increased sharply during the second half of 2011. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2011 was well-below average, with a total of 74 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010, the North Atlantic was the only basin that experienced above-normal activity. For the first year since the widespread introduction of the Dvorak intensity-estimation method in the 1980s, only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity level-all in the Northwest Pacific basin. The Arctic continued to warm at about twice the rate compared with lower latitudes. Below-normal summer snowfall, a decreasing trend in surface albedo, and above-average surface and upper air temperatures resulted in a continued pattern of extreme surface melting, and net snow and ice loss on the Greenland ice sheet. Warmer-than-normal temperatures over the Eurasian Arctic in spring resulted in a new record-low June snow cover extent and spring snow cover duration in this region. In the Canadian Arctic, the mass loss from glaciers and ice caps was the greatest since GRACE measurements began in 2002, continuing a negative trend that began in 1987. New record high temperatures occurred at 20 m below the land surface at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, where measurements began in the late 1970s. Arctic sea ice extent in September 2011 was the second-lowest on record, while the extent of old ice (four and five years) reached a new record minimum that was just 19% of normal. On the opposite pole, austral winter and spring temperatures were more than 3 degrees C above normal over much of the Antarctic continent. However, winter temperatures were below normal in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, which continued the downward trend there during the last 15 years. In summer, an all-time record high temperature of -12.3 degrees C was set at the South Pole station on 25 December, exceeding the previous record by more than a full degree. Antarctic sea ice extent anomalies increased steadily through much of the year, from briefly setting a record low in April, to well above average in December. The latter trend reflects the dispersive effects of low pressure on sea ice and the generally cool conditions around the Antarctic perimeter.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Multiwavelength follow-up of a rare IceCube neutrino multiplet
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP SCIENCES S A. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On February 17, 2016, the IceCube real-time neutrino search identified, for the first time, three muon neutrino candidates arriving within 100 s of one another, consistent with coming from the same point in the sky. Such a triplet is expected once every 13.7 years as a random coincidence of background events. However, considering the lifetime of the follow-up program the probability of detecting at least one triplet from atmospheric background is 32%. Follow-up observatories were notified in order to search for an electromagnetic counterpart. Observations were obtained by Swift's X-ray telescope, by ASAS-SN, LCO and MASTER at optical wavelengths, and by VERITAS in the very-high-energy gamma-ray regime. Moreover, the Swift BAT serendipitously observed the location 100 s after the first neutrino was detected, and data from the Fermi LAT and HAWC observatory were analyzed. We present details of the neutrino triplet and the follow-up observations. No likely electromagnetic counterpart was detected, and we discuss the implications of these constraints on candidate neutrino sources such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and active galactic nucleus flares. This study illustrates the potential of and challenges for future follow-up campaigns.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the W boson mass with the D0 detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 89:1, s. 012005
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We give a detailed description of the measurement of the W boson mass, M-W, performed on an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb(-1), which is based on similar techniques as used for our previous measurement done on an independent data set of 1 fb(-1) of data. The data were collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. This data set yields 1.68 x 10(6) W -> ev candidate events. We measure the mass using the transverse mass, electron transverse momentum, and missing transverse energy distributions. The M-W measurements using the transverse mass and the electron transverse momentum distributions are the most precise of these three and are combined to give M-W 80.367 +/- 0.013 (stat) +/- 0.022(syst) GeV = 80: 367 +/- 0.026 GeV. When combined with our earlier measurement on 1 fb(-1) of data, we obtain M-W = 80.375 +/- 0.023 GeV.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of Associated Production of Z Bosons with Charm Quark Jets in p(p)over-bar Collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 112:4, s. 042001
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first measurements of the ratios of cross sections sigma(p (p) over bar -> Z + c jet)/sigma(p (p) over bar -> Z + jet) and sigma(p (p) over bar -> Z + jet)/sigma(p (p) over bar -> Z + b jet) for the associated production of a Z boson with at least one charm or bottom quark jet. Jets have transverse momentum p(T)(jet) > 20 GeV and pseudorapidity vertical bar eta(jet)vertical bar < 2.5. These cross section ratios are measured differentially as a function of jet and Z boson transverse momenta, based on 9.7 fb(-1) of p<(p)over bar> collisions collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at root s = 1.96 TeV. The measurements show significant deviations from perturbative QCD calculations and predictions from various event generators.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Search for anomalous quartic WW gamma gamma couplings in dielectron and missing energy final states in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s 1.96 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 88:1, s. 012005
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a search for anomalous components of the quartic gauge boson coupling WW gamma gamma in events with an electron, a positron and missing transverse energy. The analyzed data correspond to 9.7 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 detector in p (p) over bar collisions at root s 1.96 TeV. The presence of anomalous quartic gauge couplings would manifest itself as an excess of boosted WW events. No such excess is found in the data, and we set the most stringent limits to date on the anomalous coupling parameters a(0)(W) and a(C)(W). When a form factor with Lambda(cutoff) = 0.5 TeV is used, the observed upper limits at 95% C. L. are vertical bar a(0)(W)/Lambda(2)vertical bar < 0.0025 GeV-2 and vertical bar a(C)(W)/Lambda(2)vertical bar < 0.0092 GeV-2.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Very high-energy gamma-ray follow-up program using neutrino triggers from IceCube
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe and report the status of a neutrino-triggered program in IceCube that generates real-time alerts for gamma-ray follow-up observations by atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes (MAGIC and VERITAS). While IceCube is capable of monitoring the whole sky continuously, high-energy gamma-ray telescopes have restricted fields of view and in general are unlikely to be observing a potential neutrino-flaring source at the time such neutrinos are recorded. The use of neutrino-triggered alerts thus aims at increasing the availability of simultaneous multi-messenger data during potential neutrino flaring activity, which can increase the discovery potential and constrain the phenomenological interpretation of the high-energy emission of selected source classes (e. g. blazars). The requirements of a fast and stable online analysis of potential neutrino signals and its operation are presented, along with first results of the program operating between 14 March 2012 and 31 December 2015.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Combined search for the Higgs boson with the D0 experiment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 88:5, s. 052011
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We perform a combination of searches for standard model Higgs boson production in p (p) over bar collisions recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a center of mass energy of root s = 1.96 TeV. The different production and decay channels have been analyzed separately, with integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1) and for Higgs boson masses 90 <= M-H <= 200 GeV. We combine these final states to achieve optimal sensitivity to the production of the Higgs boson. We also interpret the combination in terms of models with a fourth generation of fermions, and models with suppressed Higgs boson couplings to fermions. The result excludes a standard model Higgs boson at 95% C.L. in the ranges 90 < M-H < 101 GeV and 157 < M-H < 178 GeV, with an expected exclusion of 155 < M-H < 175 GeV. In the range 120 < M-H < 145 GeV, the data exhibit an excess over the expected background of up to 2 standard deviations, consistent with the presence of a standard model Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Constraints on Models for the Higgs Boson with Exotic Spin and Parity in VH -> Vb(b)over-bar Final States
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 113:16, s. 161802
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present constraints on models containing non-standard-model values for the spin J and parity P of the Higgs boson H in up to 9.7 fb(-1) of p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. These are the first studies of Higgs boson J(P) with fermions in the final state. In the ZH -> llb (b) over bar, WH -> l nu b (b) over barb, and ZH -> nu nu b (b) over bar final states, we compare the standard model (SM) Higgs boson prediction, J(P) = 0(+), with two alternative hypotheses, J(P) = 0(-) and J(P) = 2(+). We use a likelihood ratio to quantify the degree to which our data are incompatible with non-SM J(P) predictions for a range of possible production rates. Assuming that the production rate in the signal models considered is equal to the SM prediction, we reject the J(P) = 0(-) and J(P) = 2(+) hypotheses at the 97.6% CL and at the 99.0% CL, respectively. The expected exclusion sensitivity for a J(P) = 0(-)(J(P) = 2(+)) state is at the 99.86% (99.94%) CL. Under the hypothesis that our data are the result of a combination of the SM-like Higgs boson and either a J(P) = 0(-) or a J(P) = 2(+) signal, we exclude a J(P) = 0(-) fraction above 0.80 and a JP = 2(+) fraction above 0.67 at the 95% CL. The expected exclusion covers J(P) = 0(-)(J(P) = 2(+)) fractions above 0.54 (0.47).
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Double parton interactions in gamma+3 jet and gamma plus b/c jet+2 jet events in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 89:7, s. 072006
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We determine the fraction of events with double parton (DP) Scattering in a single p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV in gamma + 3 jet and gamma + b/c jet + 2 jet events collected with the D0 detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 8.7 fb(-1). The DP fractions and effective cross sections (sigma(eff)) are measured for both event samples using the same kinematic selections. The measured DP fractions range from 0.21 to 0.17, with effective cross sections in the gamma + 3 jet and gamma + b/cjet + 2 jet samples of sigma(incl)(eff) = 12.7 +/- 0.2(stat) +/- 1.3(syst) mb and sigma(HF)(eff) = 14.6 +/- 0.6(stat) +/- 3.2(syst) mb, respectively.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Electron and photon identification in the Do experiment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 750, s. 78-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The electron and photon reconstruction and identification algorithms used by the DO Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are described. The determination of the electron energy scale and resolution is presented. Studies of the performance of the electron and photon reconstruction and identification are summarized. The results are based on measurements of Z boson decay events of Z ee and Z gamma ll(i=e mu) collected in pp(over bar) collisions at a center- of- mass energy of 1.96 TeV using an integrated luminosity of up to10 fb(-1.)
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