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Sökning: WFRF:(Wills A. G.)

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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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2.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Very high-energy gamma-ray follow-up program using neutrino triggers from IceCube
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We describe and report the status of a neutrino-triggered program in IceCube that generates real-time alerts for gamma-ray follow-up observations by atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes (MAGIC and VERITAS). While IceCube is capable of monitoring the whole sky continuously, high-energy gamma-ray telescopes have restricted fields of view and in general are unlikely to be observing a potential neutrino-flaring source at the time such neutrinos are recorded. The use of neutrino-triggered alerts thus aims at increasing the availability of simultaneous multi-messenger data during potential neutrino flaring activity, which can increase the discovery potential and constrain the phenomenological interpretation of the high-energy emission of selected source classes (e. g. blazars). The requirements of a fast and stable online analysis of potential neutrino signals and its operation are presented, along with first results of the program operating between 14 March 2012 and 31 December 2015.</p>
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3.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Multiwavelength follow-up of a rare IceCube neutrino multiplet
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP SCIENCES S A. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>On February 17, 2016, the IceCube real-time neutrino search identified, for the first time, three muon neutrino candidates arriving within 100 s of one another, consistent with coming from the same point in the sky. Such a triplet is expected once every 13.7 years as a random coincidence of background events. However, considering the lifetime of the follow-up program the probability of detecting at least one triplet from atmospheric background is 32%. Follow-up observatories were notified in order to search for an electromagnetic counterpart. Observations were obtained by Swift's X-ray telescope, by ASAS-SN, LCO and MASTER at optical wavelengths, and by VERITAS in the very-high-energy gamma-ray regime. Moreover, the Swift BAT serendipitously observed the location 100 s after the first neutrino was detected, and data from the Fermi LAT and HAWC observatory were analyzed. We present details of the neutrino triplet and the follow-up observations. No likely electromagnetic counterpart was detected, and we discuss the implications of these constraints on candidate neutrino sources such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and active galactic nucleus flares. This study illustrates the potential of and challenges for future follow-up campaigns.</p>
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4.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Improved limits on dark matter annihilation in the Sun with the 79-string IceCube detector and implications for supersymmetry
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We present an improved event-level likelihood formalism for including neutrino telescope data in global fits to new physics. We derive limits on spin-dependent dark matter-proton scattering by employing the new formalism in a re-analysis of data from the 79-string IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in the Sun, including explicit energy information for each event. The new analysis excludes a number of models in the weak-scale minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for the first time. This work is accompanied by the public release of the 79-string IceCube data, as well as an associated computer code for applying the new likelihood to arbitrary dark matter models.</p>
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5.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • An All-Sky Search For Three Flavors Of Neutrinos From Gamma-Ray Bursts With The Icecube Neutrino Observatory
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 824:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We present the results and methodology of a search for neutrinos produced in the decay of charged pions created in interactions between protons and gamma-rays during the prompt emission of 807 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) over the entire sky. This three-year search is the first in IceCube for shower-like Cherenkov light patterns from electron, muon, and tau neutrinos correlated with GRBs. We detect five low-significance events correlated with five GRBs. These events are consistent with the background expectation from atmospheric muons and neutrinos. The results of this search in combination with those of IceCube's four years of searches for track-like Cherenkov light patterns from muon neutrinos correlated with Northern-Hemisphere GRBs produce limits that tightly constrain current models of neutrino and ultra high energy cosmic ray production in GRB fireballs.</p>
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6.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Anisotropy In Cosmic-Ray Arrival Directions In The Southern Hemisphere Based On Six Years Of Data From The Icecube Detector
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 826:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The IceCube Neutrino Observatory accumulated a total of 318 billion cosmic-ray-induced muon events between 2009 May and 2015 May. This data set was used for a detailed analysis of the sidereal anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays in the TeV to PeV energy range. The observed global sidereal anisotropy features large regions of relative excess and deficit, with amplitudes of the order of 10(-3) up to about 100 TeV. A decomposition of the arrival direction distribution into spherical harmonics shows that most of the power is contained in the low-multipole (l &lt;= 4) moments. However, higher multipole components are found to be statistically significant down to an angular scale of less than 10 degrees, approaching the angular resolution of the detector. Above 100 TeV, a change in the morphology of the arrival direction distribution is observed, and the anisotropy is characterized by a wide relative deficit whose amplitude increases with primary energy up to at least 5 PeV, the highest energies currently accessible to IceCube. No time dependence of the large-and small-scale structures is observed in the period of six years covered by this analysis. The high-statistics data set reveals more details of the properties of the anisotropy and is potentially able to shed light on the various physical processes that are responsible for the complex angular structure and energy evolution.</p>
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7.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Constraints on Minute-Scale Transient Astrophysical Neutrino Sources
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 122:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>High-energy neutrino emission has been predicted for several short-lived astrophysical transients including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core-collapse supernovae with choked jets, and neutron star mergers. IceCube's optical and x-ray follow-up program searches for such transient sources by looking for two or more muon neutrino candidates in directional coincidence and arriving within 100 s. The measured rate of neutrino alerts is consistent with the expected rate of chance coincidences of atmospheric background events and no likely electromagnetic counterparts have been identified in Swift follow-up observations. Here, we calculate generic bounds on the neutrino flux of short-lived transient sources. Assuming an E-2.5 neutrino spectrum, we find that the neutrino flux of rare sources, like long gamma-ray bursts, is constrained to &lt; 5% of the detected astrophysical flux and the energy released in neutrinos (100 GeV to 10 PeV) by a median bright GRB-like source is &lt; 10(52.5) erg. For a harder E-2.13 neutrino spectrum up to 30% of the flux could be produced by GRBs and the allowed median source energy is &lt; 10(52) erg. A hypothetical population of transient sources has to be more common than 10(-5) Mpc(-3) yr(-1) (5 x 10(-8) Mpc(-3) yr(-1) for the E-2.13 spectrum) to account for the complete astrophysical neutrino flux.</p>
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8.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Neutrino oscillation studies with IceCube-DeepCore
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Physics B. - 0550-3213 .- 1873-1562. ; 908, s. 161-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IceCube, a gigaton-scale neutrino detector located at the South Pole, was primarily designed to search for astrophysical neutrinos with energies of PeV and higher. This goal has been achieved with the detection of the highest energy neutrinos to date. At the other end of the energy spectrum, the DeepCore extension lowers the energy threshold of the detector to approximately 10 GeV and opens the door for oscillation studies using atmospheric neutrinos. An analysis of the disappearance of these neutrinos has been completed, with the results produced being complementary with dedicated oscillation experiments. Following a review of the detector principle and performance, the method used to make these calculations, as well as the results, is detailed. Finally, the future prospects of IceCube-DeepCore and the next generation of neutrino experiments at the South Pole (IceCube-Gen2, specifically the PINGU sub-detector) are briefly discussed.</p>
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9.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • All-flavour search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Milky Way with IceCube/DeepCore
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 76:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We present the first IceCube search for a signal of dark matter annihilations in the Milky Way using all-flavour neutrino-induced particle cascades. The analysis focuses on the DeepCore sub-detector of IceCube, and uses the surrounding IceCube strings as a veto region in order to select starting events in the DeepCore volume. We use 329 live-days of data from IceCube operating in its 86-string configuration during 2011-2012. No neutrino excess is found, the final result being compatible with the background-only hypothesis. From this null result, we derive upper limits on the velocity-averaged self-annihilation cross-section, , for dark matter candidate masses ranging from 30 GeV up to 10 TeV, assuming both a cuspy and a flat-cored dark matter halo profile. For dark matter masses between 200 GeV and 10 TeV, the results improve on all previous IceCube results on , reaching a level of 10 cm s, depending on the annihilation channel assumed, for a cusped NFW profile. The analysis demonstrates that all-flavour searches are competitive with muon channel searches despite the intrinsically worse angular resolution of cascades compared to muon tracks in IceCube.</p>
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10.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 64
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