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1.
  • Brandhagen, Martin, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns are related to general and central adiposity.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European journal of clinical nutrition. - 1476-5640. ; 66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Objectives:Alcohol and dietary fat have high energy densities and may therefore be related to body weight and fat deposition. We studied associations between alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns and general and central adiposity.Subjects/Methods:A population-based cross-sectional study of 524 men and 611 women. The participants answered a dietary questionnaire describing habitual food consumption including intake of alcoholic beverages. Macronutrient intake was analysed in relation to anthropometric measures and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry determined body fat.Results:In women, total alcohol intake was negatively associated with body fat percentage (β:-0.67, P<0.01). In men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) (β: 0.28, P=0.01). In addition, positive associations were found between intake of alcohol from spirits and body fat percentage (β: 1.17, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.52, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: 2.29, P=0.01). In men, protein intake was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (β: 0.03, P=0.001), body fat percentage (β: 0.04, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.02, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β: 0.09, P<0.01). Also in men only, negative associations between fat intake and BMI (β: -0.03, P<0.01), SAD (β: -0.02, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: -0.05, P<0.05) were found.Conclusions:Alcohol intake was inversely associated to relative body fat in women whereas spirits consumption was positively related to central and general obesity in men. Macronutrient intakes, particularly protein and fat, were differently associated with obesity indicators in men versus women. This may reflect a differential effect by gender, or differential obesity related reporting errors in men and women.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 16 November 2011; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.189.
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2.
  • Bärebring, Linnea, et al. (författare)
  • Sociodemographic factors associated with dietary supplement use in early pregnancy in a Swedish cohort.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The British journal of nutrition. - 1475-2662. ; Jan;119:1, s. 90-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sociodemographic factors have been associated with dietary supplement use among pregnant women but few data exist in a Swedish population. This study aimed to identify factors associated with overall supplement use as well as use of folic acid, vitamin D and n-3 in early pregnancy. Women in the first trimester of pregnancy were included at registration to the antenatal care in 2013-2014 (n 2109). Information regarding supplement use as well as sociodemographic and anthropometric data were obtained from questionnaires and medical records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between sociodemographic variables and supplement use. A total of 78 % of the participants reported using at least one dietary supplement in the first trimester. Folic acid supplement use was reported by 74 %, vitamin D supplement use by 43 % and n-3 supplement use by <5 %. Use of any type of supplement in early pregnancy was related to gestational age, parity, birthplace, education and employment. Folic acid supplement use was related to gestational age, parity, birthplace, income, education and employment. Vitamin D supplement use was related to gestational age, birthplace and education. In conclusion, in the first trimester of pregnancy, folic acid supplements were used by three in four women, while vitamin D supplements were used by less than half of the women. The results of this study show a socioeconomic disparity between supplement users and non-users which may have a negative impact on the health of future generations.
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3.
  • Bärebring, Linnea, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Dietary Vitamin D Intake from Two Food Frequency Questionnaires, Using Food Records and the Biomarker 25-Hydroxyvitamin D among Pregnant Women
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - 2072-6643. ; 10:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our objective was to validate vitamin D intake from a short vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ) and a longer online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against a food record and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) as a biomarker of vitamin D status, among pregnant women in Sweden. The number of women included was 1125 with VDQ, FFQ and 25OHD, and of those, 64 also completed the food record. Median vitamin D intakes were 3.9 mu g by VDQ (p < 0.001), and 5.3 mu g by FFQ (p = 0.89), compared to 5.0 mu g by food record. Correlations between vitamin D intake from food record and VDQ (rho = 0.51, p < 0.001) or FFQ (rho = 0.49, p < 0.001) were similar. The VDQ and FFQ also had a similar ability to rank the individuals according to vitamin D intake. However, only vitamin D intake from the VDQ was significantly associated with vitamin D status as assessed by 25OHD. The validation coefficient for the VDQ was 0.68 and 0.75 for the FFQ. In conclusion, assessing dietary vitamin D intake is challenging, regardless of the dietary assessment method. The VDQ, that includes only four food items, is a valid, simple and useful tool in assessing vitamin D intake of pregnant women in Sweden, while imposing a minimal burden on women and researchers.
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4.
  • Heath, Alicia K., et al. (författare)
  • Nutrient-wide association study of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Breast cancer research : BCR. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 22:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. METHODS: Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk.
5.
  • Hjorth, Therese, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in dietary carbon footprint over ten years relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Research. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to examine 10-year changes in dietary carbon footprint relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the unique longitudinal Västerbotten Intervention Programme, Sweden. Here, 14 591 women and 13 347 men had been followed over time. Food intake was assessed via multiple two study visits 1996–2016, using a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) related to food intake, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/1000 kcal and day, were estimated. Participants were classified into GHGE quintiles within sex and 10-year age group strata at both visits. Women and men changing from lowest to highest GHGE quintile exhibited highest body mass index within their quintiles at first visit, and the largest increase in intake of meat, minced meat, chicken, fish and butter and the largest decrease in intake of potatoes, rice and pasta. Women and men changing from highest to lowest GHGE quintile exhibited basically lowest rates of university degree and marriage and highest rates of smoking within their quintiles at first visit. Among these, both sexes reported the largest decrease in intake of meat, minced meat and milk, and the largest increase in intake of snacks and, for women, sweets. More research is needed on how to motivate dietary modifications to reduce climate impact and support public health. © 2020, The Author(s).
6.
  • Hjorth, Therese, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in dietary carbon footprint over ten years relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to examine 10-year changes in dietary carbon footprint relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the unique longitudinal Västerbotten Intervention Programme, Sweden. Here, 14 591 women and 13 347 men had been followed over time. Food intake was assessed via multiple two study visits 1996-2016, using a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) related to food intake, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/1000 kcal and day, were estimated. Participants were classified into GHGE quintiles within sex and 10-year age group strata at both visits. Women and men changing from lowest to highest GHGE quintile exhibited highest body mass index within their quintiles at first visit, and the largest increase in intake of meat, minced meat, chicken, fish and butter and the largest decrease in intake of potatoes, rice and pasta. Women and men changing from highest to lowest GHGE quintile exhibited basically lowest rates of university degree and marriage and highest rates of smoking within their quintiles at first visit. Among these, both sexes reported the largest decrease in intake of meat, minced meat and milk, and the largest increase in intake of snacks and, for women, sweets. More research is needed on how to motivate dietary modifications to reduce climate impact and support public health.
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7.
  • Landberg, Rikard, et al. (författare)
  • New alkylresorcinol metabolites in spot urine as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake in a Swedish middle-aged population
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0954-3007. ; 72, s. 1439-1446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/objectives: Studies on the health effects of whole grains typically use self-reported intakes which are prone to large measurement errors. Dietary biomarkers that can provide an objective measure of intake are needed. New alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites (3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (DHBA-glycine) and 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl) pentanoic acid (DHPPTA)) in 24 h urine samples have been suggested as biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake but remain to be evaluated in spot urine samples. Subjects/methods: The reproducibility of the new AR metabolites (DHCA, DHBA-glycine and DHPPTA) was investigated in 4 repeated samples over a period of 2 wk in spot urine from 40 Swedish men and women enroled in the SCAPIS-study, after adjustment of creatinine. Metabolite concentrations were correlated with total whole grain intake estimated during the same period. Results: The medium-term reproducibility determined for DHCA, DHPPTA and DHBA-glycine varied from moderate to excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.35–0.67). Moreover, DHCA and DHBA-glycine were independently associated with self-reported total WG intake (β = 0.18, P = 0.08 and β = 0.18, P = 0.02, respectively) and all metabolites except for DHPPA were higher among women. Conclusions: This study supports the idea of using AR metabolites in one or several spot urine samples as biomarkers of whole grain intake. These findings need to be confirmed in different populations.
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8.
  • Månsdotter, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Parental share in public and domestic spheres: a population study on gender equality, death, and sickness.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of epidemiology and community health. - 0143-005X. ; 60:7, s. 616-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY OBJECTIVE: Examine the relation between aspects of gender equality and population health based on the premise that sex differences in health are mainly caused by the gender system. SETTING/ PARTICIPANTS: All Swedish couples (98 240 people) who had their first child together in 1978. DESIGN: The exposure of gender equality is shown by the parents' division of income and occupational position (public sphere), and parental leave and temporary child care (domestic sphere). People were classified by these indicators during 1978-1980 into different categories; those on an equal footing with their partner and those who were traditionally or untraditionally unequal. Health is measured by the outcomes of death during 1981-2001 and sickness absence during 1986-2000. Data are obtained by linking individual information from various national sources. The statistical method used is multiple logistic regressions with odds ratios as estimates of relative risks. MAIN RESULTS: From the public sphere is shown that traditionally unequal women have decreased health risks compared with equal women, while traditionally unequal men tend to have increased health risks compared with equal men. From the domestic sphere is indicated that both women and men run higher risks of death and sickness when being traditionally unequal compared with equal. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the relation between gender equality and health, which was found to depend on sex, life sphere, and inequality type, seems to require a combination of the hypotheses of convergence, stress and expansion.
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9.
  • Månsdotter, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands). - 0168-8510. ; 82:1, s. 102-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. METHODS: Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). RESULTS: It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.
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10.
  • Nybacka, Sanna, et al. (författare)
  • Carotenoids and alkylresorcinols as objective biomarkers of diet quality when assessing the validity of a web-based food record tool and a food frequency questionnaire in a middle-aged population
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Nutrition. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundRecently, two web-based dietary assessment tools were developed; a 4-day food record tool (the Riksmaten method), and a food frequency questionnaire (MiniMeal-Q). The aim of this study was to use objective biomarkers to examine the ability of the two methods to capture habitual dietary intake.MethodsIn total, 200 individuals from the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) participated. Plasma concentration of carotenoids were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and used as biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake. A gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was used to quantify alkylresorcinol homologues, which were used as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake.ResultsThe correlations between energy-adjusted fruit and vegetable intakes and plasma carotenoid concentrations (except lycopene) were stronger amongst women than men (r = 0.46 and r = 0.20 for the Riksmaten method, and r = 0.50 and r = 0.31 for MiniMeal-Q, respectively). For whole grains, the correlations of energy-adjusted intakes and alkylresorcinols were higher using the Riksmaten method (r = 0.30 and r = 0.29 for women and men) than the MiniMeal-Q (r = 0.25 and r = 0.20, respectively). In regression analyses between plasma carotenoids (except lycopene) and reported intake of fruits and vegetables, the R2 were 21.6 % and 5.1 % for women and men by the Riksmaten method, and correspondingly, 18.0 % and 6.6 % by the MiniMeal-Q. In the final full models, adjusted for smoking and BMI, all regression models remained statistically significant. The regression analyses of plasma alkylresorcinols and reported intake of whole grains showed an R2 of 9.4 % and 9.7 % for women and men by the Riksmaten method, and correspondingly, 5.3 % and 8.4 % by the MiniMeal-Q. In the final full models, adjusted for smoking and age, all regression models remained statistically significant, except for women in MiniMeal-Q.ConclusionBoth dietary assessment methods were able to capture dietary intake based on food groups with a similar precision. Agreements with objective biomarkers ranged from low to moderate, depending on sex and diet quality indicator. While the ability to capture whole grain intake was weak for both methods and sexes, the assessment of vegetable and fruit intake performed in a satisfactory manner for women in both methods.
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