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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Wisniewski John) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Wisniewski John)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Boccaletti, Anthony, et al. (författare)
  • Fast-moving features in the debris disk around AU Microscopii
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 526:7572, s. 230-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the 1980s, excess infrared emission was discovered around main-sequence stars; subsequent direct-imaging observations revealed orbiting disks of cold dust to be the source(1). These 'debris disks' were thought to be by-products of planet formation because they often exhibited morphological and brightness asymmetries that may result from gravitational perturbation by planets. This was proved to be true for the beta Pictoris system, in which the known planet generates an observable warp in the disk(2-5). The nearby, young, unusually active late-type star AU Microscopii hosts a well-studied edge-on debris disk; earlier observations in the visible and near-infrared found asymmetric localized structures in the form of intensity variations along the midplane of the disk beyond a distance of 20 astronomical units(6-9). Here we report high-contrast imaging that reveals a series of five large-scale features in the southeast side of the disk, at projected separations of 10-60 astronomical units, persisting over intervals of 1-4 years. All these features appear to move away from the star at projected speeds of 4-10 kilometres per second, suggesting highly eccentric or unbound trajectories if they are associated with physical entities. The origin, localization, morphology and rapid evolution of these features are difficult to reconcile with current theories.</p>
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2.
  • Crary, John F., et al. (författare)
  • Primary age-related tauopathy (PART) : a common pathology associated with human aging
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 128:6, s. 755-766
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We recommend a new term, "primary age-related tauopathy" (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (A beta) plaques. For these "NFT+/A beta-aEuroe brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFTs are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as "tangle-only dementia" and "tangle-predominant senile dementia", are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of A beta accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed.</p>
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4.
  • Nelson, Peter T., et al. (författare)
  • Correlation of Alzheimer Disease Neuropathologic Changes With Cognitive Status : A Review of the Literature
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. - 0022-3069 .- 1554-6578. ; 71:5, s. 362-381
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Clinicopathologic correlation studies are critically important for the field of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. Studies on human subjects with autopsy confirmation entail numerous potential biases that affect both their general applicability and the validity of the correlations. Many sources of data variability can weaken the apparent correlation between cognitive status and AD neuropathologic changes. Indeed, most persons in advanced old age have significant non-AD brain lesions that may alter cognition independently of AD. Worldwide research efforts have evaluated thousands of human subjects to assess the causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly, and these studies have been interpreted in different ways. We review the literature focusing on the correlation of AD neuropathologic changes (i.e. beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) with cognitive impairment. We discuss the various patterns of brain changes that have been observed in elderly individuals to provide a perspective for understanding AD clinicopathologic correlation and conclude that evidence from many independent research centers strongly supports the existence of a specific disease, as defined by the presence of AA plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although AA plaques may play a key role in AD pathogenesis, the severity of cognitive impairment correlates best with the burden of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles.</p>
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5.
  • Akiyama, Eiji, et al. (författare)
  • SPIRAL STRUCTURE AND DIFFERENTIAL DUST SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN THE LkH alpha 330 DISK
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 152:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Dust trapping accelerates the coagulation of dust particles, and, thus, it represents an initial step toward the formation of planetesimals. We report H-band (1.6 mu m) linear polarimetric observations and 0.87 mm interferometric continuum observations toward a transitional disk around LkH alpha 330. As a. result, a pair of spiral arms were detected in the H-band emission, and an asymmetric (potentially arm-like) structure was detected in the 0.87 mm continuum emission. We discuss the origin of the spiral arm and the asymmetric structure. and suggest that a massive unseen planet is the most plausible explanation. The possibility of dust trapping and grain growth causing the asymmetric structure was also investigated through the opacity index (beta) by plotting the observed spectral energy distribution slope between 0.87 mm from our Submillimeter Array observation and 1.3 mm from literature. The results imply that grains are indistinguishable from interstellar medium-like dust in the east side (beta = 2.0 +/- 0.5) but are much smaller in the west side beta = 0.7(-0.4)(+0.5), indicating differential dust size distribution between the two sides of the disk. Combining the results of near-infrared and submillimeter observations, we conjecture that the spiral arms exist at the upper surface and an asymmetric structure resides in the disk interior. Future observations at centimeter wavelengths and differential polarization imaging in other bands (Y-K) with extreme AO imagers are required to understand how large dust grains form and to further explore the dust distribution in the disk.</p>
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6.
  • Botvinik-Nezer, Rotem, et al. (författare)
  • Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses(1). The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset(2-5). Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed. The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.</p>
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7.
  • Botvinik-Nezer, Rotem, et al. (författare)
  • Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 582, s. 84-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses(1). The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset(2-5). Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed. The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.</p>
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9.
  • Boutajangout, Allal, et al. (författare)
  • Affibody-Mediated Sequestration of Amyloid beta Demonstrates Preventive Efficacy in a Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1663-4365 .- 1663-4365. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Different strategies for treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are currently under investigation, including passive immunization with anti-amyloid beta (anti-A beta) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of a novel type of A beta-targeting agent based on an affibody molecule with fundamentally different properties to mAbs. We generated a therapeutic candidate, denoted Z(SYM73)-albumin-binding domain (ABD; 16.8 kDa), by genetic linkage of the dimeric Z(SYM73) affibody for sequestering of monomeric A beta-peptides and an ABD for extension of its in vivo half-life. Amyloid precursor protein (APP)/PS1 transgenic AD mice were administered with Z(SYM73)-ABD, followed by behavioral examination and immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrated rescued cognitive functions and significantly lower amyloid burden in the treated animals compared to controls. No toxicological symptoms or immunology-related side-effects were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported in vivo investigation of a systemically delivered scaffold protein against monomeric A beta, demonstrating a therapeutic potential for prevention of AD.</p>
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10.
  • Currie, Thayne, et al. (författare)
  • No Clear, Direct Evidence for Multiple Protoplanets Orbiting LkCa 15 : LkCa 15 bcd are Likely Inner Disk Signals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 877:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Two studies utilizing sparse aperture-masking (SAM) interferometry and H-alpha differential imaging have reported multiple Jovian companions around the young solar-mass star, LkCa 15 (LkCa 15 bcd): the first claimed direct detection of infant, newly formed planets (protoplanets). We present new near-infrared direct imaging/spectroscopy from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system coupled with Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) integral field spectrograph and multi-epoch thermal infrared imaging from Keck/NIRC2 of LkCa 15 at high Strehl ratios. These data provide the first direct imaging look at the same wavelengths and in the same locations where previous studies identified the LkCa 15 protoplanets, and thus offer the first decisive test of their existence. The data do not reveal these planets. Instead, we resolve extended emission tracing a dust disk with a brightness and location comparable to that claimed for LkCa 15 bcd. Forward-models attributing this signal to orbiting planets are inconsistent with the combined SCExAO/CHARIS and Keck/NIRC2 data. An inner disk provides a more compelling explanation for the SAM detections and perhaps also the claimed H-alpha detection of LkCa 15 b. We conclude that there is currently no clear, direct evidence for multiple protoplanets orbiting LkCa 15, although the system likely contains at least one unseen Jovian companion. To identify Jovian companions around LkCa 15 from future observations, the inner disk should be detected and its effect modeled, removed, and shown to be distinguishable from planets. Protoplanet candidates identified from similar systems should likewise be clearly distinguished from disk emission through modeling.</p>
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