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1.
  • Benetou, V., et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean diet and hip fracture incidence among older adults : the CHANCES project
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 29:7, s. 1591-1599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) and hip fracture incidence is not yet established. In a diverse population of elderly, increased adherence to MD was associated with lower hip fracture incidence. Except preventing major chronic diseases, adhering to MD might have additional benefits in lowering hip fracture risk.INTRODUCTION: Hip fractures constitute a major public health problem among older adults. Latest evidence links adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) with reduced hip fracture risk, but still more research is needed to elucidate this relationship. The potential association of adherence to MD with hip fracture incidence was explored among older adults.METHODS: A total of 140,775 adults (116,176 women, 24,599 men) 60 years and older, from five cohorts from Europe and the USA, were followed-up for 1,896,219 person-years experiencing 5454 hip fractures. Diet was assessed at baseline by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires, and hip fractures were ascertained through patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adherence to MD was evaluated by a scoring system on a 10-point scale modified to be applied also to non-Mediterranean populations. In order to evaluate the association between MD and hip fracture incidence, cohort-specific hazard ratios (HR), adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Cox proportional-hazards regression and pooled estimates were subsequently derived implementing random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: A two-point increase in the score was associated with a significant 4% decrease in hip fracture risk (pooled adjusted HR 0.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.92-0.99, pheterogeneity = 0.446). In categorical analyses, hip fracture risk was lower among men and women with moderate (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.99) and high (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.01) adherence to the score compared with those with low adherence.CONCLUSIONS: In this large sample of older adults from Europe and the USA, increased adherence to MD was associated with lower hip fracture incidence.
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2.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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4.
  • Michaëlsson, K, et al. (författare)
  • Association between statin use and consultation or surgery for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee : A pooled analysis of four cohort studies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. - : Elsevier. - 1063-4584 .- 1522-9653. ; 25:11, s. 1804-1813
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Experimental findings and previous observational data have suggested lower risk of osteoarthritis (OA) with statin use but results are inconsistent. Large-scale studies with a clinically important outcome are needed. Thus, we aimed to determine whether statin use is associated with a reduced risk of developing clinically-defined hip or knee OA. Design: Pooled analysis based on time-to-event analysis of four population-based large cohorts, encompassing in total 132,607 persons aged 57-91 years resident in southern and central Sweden. We studied the association between statin use and time to consultation or surgery for OA of the hip or knee by time-dependent exposure analysis and Cox regression. Results: During 7.5 years of follow-up, we identified 7468 out- or inpatient treated cases of hip or knee OA. Compared with never use, current use of statins conferred no overall reduction in the risk of OA with an adjusted pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 1.04 (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.99-1.10). We found no dose-response relation between duration of current statin use and the risk of OA, with similar HRs among patients with less than 1 year of use (HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.92-1.32) as in patients with use for 3 years or more (HR 1.05; 0.93-1.16). Results were comparable in those with low, medium and high dose of current statin use, without indications of heterogeneity of study results. Conclusion: Statin use is not associated with reduced risk of consultation or surgery for OA of the hip or knee.
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5.
  • Rashidkhani, B., et al. (författare)
  • Fruits, vegetables and risk of renal cell carcinoma : a prospective study of Swedish women
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Hoboken, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. - 0020-7136 (Print) 0020-7136 (Linking) ; 113:3, s. 451-455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Findings of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk have been inconclusive. To study the association between fruits and vegetables and risk of RCC in a population-based prospective cohort study of Swedish women, we collected dietary information from 61,000 women age 40-76 years by a food-frequency questionnaire. During 13.4 years of follow-up 122 women developed RCC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Women consuming 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables daily had a relative risk of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.26-1.34) in comparison to them consuming less than once daily. When fruits and vegetables were examined separately, those who consumed more than 75 servings per month of fruits or vegetables had multivariate relative risk of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.27-1.25) and 0.60 (95% CI = 0.31-1.17) respectively, compared to those consuming 11 or less servings per month. Within the group of fruits, the strongest inverse association was observed for banana (p = 0.07 by Wald test). The risk of RCC increased monotonically with increasing intake frequencies of fruit juice (p-value for trend = 0.10). Within the group of vegetables, the strongest inverse association was observed for root vegetables (p = 0.03 by Wald test). The risk of RCC decreased with increasing consumption frequencies of white cabbage (p for trend = 0.07). Frequent consumption of salad vegetables (once or more per day) decreased the risk by 40% (RR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.30-1.22), in comparison to no consumption. Our results suggested that high consumption of fruits and vegetables might be associated with reduced risk of RCC.
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6.
  • Rasouli, B., et al. (författare)
  • Coffee consumption, genetic susceptibility and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults : A population-based case-control study
  • Ingår i: Diabetes and Metabolism. - : Elsevier Masson SAS. - 1262-3636 .- 1878-1780. ; 44:4, s. 354-360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Coffee consumption is inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast, an increased risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) has been reported in heavy coffee consumers, primarily in a subgroup with stronger autoimmune characteristics. Our study aimed to investigate whether coffee consumption interacts with HLA genotypes in relation to risk of LADA. Methods: This population-based study comprised incident cases of LADA (n = 484) and T2D (n = 1609), and also 885 healthy controls. Information on coffee consumption was collected by food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of diabetes were calculated and adjusted for age, gender, BMI, education level, smoking and alcohol intake. Potential interactions between coffee consumption and high-risk HLA genotypes were calculated by attributable proportion (AP) due to interaction. Results: Coffee intake was positively associated with LADA in carriers of high-risk HLA genotypes (OR: 1.14 per cup/day, 95% CI: 1.02–1.28), whereas no association was observed in non-carriers (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.93–1.17). Subjects with both heavy coffee consumption (≥ 4 cups/day) and high-risk HLA genotypes had an OR of 5.74 (95% CI: 3.34–9.88) with an estimated AP of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.01–0.71; P = 0.04370). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that coffee consumption interacts with HLA to promote LADA.
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7.
  • Zhan, Haoyu, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 52:6, s. 572-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide analysis identifies 32 loci associated with breast cancer susceptibility, accounting for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype(1-3). To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 x 10(-8)), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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8.
  • Adami, Hans-Olov, et al. (författare)
  • The aetiology and pathogenesis of human breast cancer
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Mutation research. - 0027-5107 .- 1873-135X. ; 333:1-2, s. 29-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whilst investigators have clearly shown that non-hereditary factors dominate the aetiology of human breast cancer, they have failed to identify quantitatively important causes, and prospects for prevention remain indeed limited. However, progress in epidemiological and basic research has taken place during the last few years. Current evidence suggests that breast cancer may be affected by the intra-uterine environment, that exposures during adolescence are particularly important, and that pregnancy has a dual effect on breast cancer risk: an early increase followed by long-term protection. Great variation exists in the structural development of the breast ductal system already in the newborn--and by inference in utero--and a pregnancy induces permanent structural changes in the mammary gland. We suggest that these observations fit into an aetiological model with the following key components: (1) breast cancer risk depends on the number of cells at risk, the susceptibility of individual cells to malignant transformation, and on the degree of cellular proliferation, notably cells which can act as founders of breast cancer; (2) the number of target cells is determined by the hormonal environment mainly early in life, perhaps already in utero; (3) in adult life, hormones which are non-genotoxic, increase breast cancer risk by increasing selective cell proliferation and thus number of target cells and the risk of retention of spontaneous somatic mutations; (4) while a pregnancy stimulates the growth of already malignant cells or cells close to malignant transformation (and thereby entails a short-term risk increase) the dominating long-term protection occurs due to permanent structural changes, terminal differentiation and perhaps decreased cell proliferation and carcinogen-binding in combination.
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9.
  • Adams, Charleen, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers of Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer in the ProtecT Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.
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10.
  • Ahmed, Hanna N., et al. (författare)
  • Coffee consumption and risk of heart failure in men : An analysis from the Cohort of Swedish Men
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: ; 158:4, s. 667-672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A previous study found that consuming 5 or more cups of coffee per day was associated with increased incidence of heart failure (HF). We sought to evaluate this association in a larger population. Methods We measured coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaires among 37,315 men without history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HE They were observed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, until December 3 1, 2006, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause of death registries. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, dietary, and demographic factors were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results For 9 years of follow-up, 784 men experienced an HF event. Compared to men who drank! l cup of coffee per day (unadjusted rate 29.9 HF events/ 10,000 person-years), RR were 0.87 (95% CI 0.69-1.11, unadjusted rate 29.2/10,000 person-years) for 2 cups/d, 0.89 (95% CI 0.70-1.14, unadjusted rate 25.1/10,000 person-years) for 3 cups/d, 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.15, unadjusted rate 25.0/10,000 person-years) for 4 cups/d, and 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.15, unadjusted rate 18.1/10,000 person-years) for >= 5 cups/d (P for trend in RR = .61). Conclusions This study did not support the hypothesis that high coffee consumption is associated with increased rates of HF hospitalization or mortality. (Am Heart J 2009;158:667-72.)
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