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Sökning: WFRF:(Wollmer P.)

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  • Garpered, S., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of airway inflammation in current smokers by positron emission tomography
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - : Wiley Online Library. - 1475-0961 .- 1475-097X. ; 39:6, s. 393-398
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Accumulation of activated neutrophilic leucocytes is known to increase uptake of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) into lung tissue. Available evidence suggests that smokers and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have neutrophilic inflammation in peripheral airways. The aim of this study was to examine whether current smokers have higher lung tissue uptake of F-18-FDG than never-smokers when correcting for air fraction of the lungs. Methods We prospectively recruited 33 current smokers and 33 never-smokers among subjects referred for diagnosis or staging of cancer, other than lung cancer, with combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with F-18-FDG. Subjects with focal F-18-FDG uptake or focal CT abnormalities in the lungs were excluded. The lungs were segmented in the CT image, and lung density measured. F-18-FDG uptake was measured in the corresponding volume and corrected for air fraction. Results Lung uptake of F-18-FDG, corrected for air fraction, was 12 center dot 5 and 8 per cent higher in the right and left lungs, respectively, in current smokers than in never-smokers (P<0 center dot 05). Conclusion Abnormal lung tissue uptake of F-18-FDG may be masked by reduced lung density if the uptake is not related to air fraction. Increased uptake of F-18-FDG in lung tissue in current smokers relative to never-smokers may reflect inflammation in peripheral airways. Measurements of F-18-FDG uptake in the lung tissue may be useful for animal and human studies of airways disease in COPD and the relation between airway and systemic inflammation.
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  • Torén, Kjell, 1952, et al. (författare)
  • Chronic airflow limitation and its relation to respiratory symptoms among ever-smokers and never-smokers: a cross-sectional study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Bmj Open Respiratory Research. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2052-4439. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on the presence of persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation (CAL). CAL is based on the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) after bronchodilation, and FEV1:FVC less than the fifth percentile is often used as a cut-off for CAL. The aim was to investigate if increasing percentiles of FEV1:FVC were associated withany respiratory symptom(cough with phlegm, dyspnoea or wheezing) in a general population sample of never-smokers and ever-smokers. Methods In a cross-sectional study comprising 15 128 adults (50-64 years), 7120 never-smokers and 8008 ever-smokers completed a respiratory questionnaire and performed FEV(1)and FVC after bronchodilation. We calculated theirz-scores for FEV1:FVC and defined the fifth percentile using the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference value, GLI(5)and increasing percentiles up to GLI(25). We analysed the associations between different strata of percentiles and prevalence ofany respiratory symptomusing multivariable logistic regression for estimation of OR. Results Among all subjects, regardless of smoking habits, the odds ofany respiratory symptomwere elevated up to the GLI(15-20)strata. Among never-smokers, the odds ofany respiratory symptomwere elevated at GLI(<5)(OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.43 to 5.23) and at GLI(5-10)(OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.69 to 3.91), but not at higher percentiles. Among ever-smokers, the odds ofany respiratory symptomwere elevated from GLI(<5)(OR 4.64, 95% CI 3.79 to 5.68) up to GLI(>= 25)(OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.75). Conclusions The association between percentages of FEV1:FVC and respiratory symptoms differed depending on smoking history. Our results support a higher percentile cut-off for FEV1:FVC for never-smokers and, in particular, for ever-smokers.
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  • Torén, Kjell, 1952, et al. (författare)
  • Vital capacity and COPD: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. - : DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD. - 1178-2005 .- 1176-9106. ; 11:1, s. 927-933
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Spirometric diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/vital capacity (VC), either as a fixed value <0.7 or below the lower limit of normal (LLN). Forced vital capacity (FVC) is a proxy for VC. The first aim was to compare the use of FVC and VC, assessed as the highest value of FVC or slow vital capacity (SVC), when assessing the FEV1/VC ratio in a general population setting. The second aim was to evaluate the characteristics of subjects with COPD who obtained a higher SVC than FVC. Methods: Subjects (n=1,050) aged 50-64 years were investigated with FEV1, FVC, and SVC after bronchodilation. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPDFVC was defined as FEV1/FVC <0.7, GOLDCOPD(VC) as FEV1/VC <0.7 using the maximum value of FVC or SVC, LLNCOPDFVC as FEV1/FVC below the LLN, and LLNCOPDVC as FEV1/VC below the LLN using the maximum value of FVC or SVC. Results: Prevalence of GOLDCOPD(FVC) was 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2-12.0) and the prevalence of LLNCOPDFVC was 9.5% (95% CI 7.8-11.4). When estimates were based on VC, the prevalence became higher; 16.4% (95% CI 14.3-18.9) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.5-17.9) for GOLDCOPD(VC) and LLNCOPDVC, respectively. The group of additional subjects classified as having COPD based on VC, had lower FEV1, more wheeze and higher residual volume compared to subjects without any COPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of COPD was significantly higher when the ratio FEV1/VC was calculated using the highest value of SVC or FVC compared with using FVC only. Subjects classified as having COPD when using the VC concept were more obstructive and with indications of air trapping. Hence, the use of only FVC when assessing airflow limitation may result in a considerable under diagnosis of subjects with mild COPD.
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6.
  • Vikgren, Jenny, 1957, et al. (författare)
  • Visual and Quantitative Evaluation of Emphysema: A Case-Control Study of 1111 Participants in the Pilot Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Academic Radiology. - : Elsevier. - 1076-6332 .- 1878-4046. ; 27:5, s. 636-643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale and Objectives: Emphysema is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The primary aim of this study was to investigate inter- and intraobserver agreement of visual assessment of mild emphysema in low-dose multidetector computed tomography of subjects in the pilot SCAPIS in order to certify consistent detection of mild emphysema. The secondary aim was to investigate the performance of quantitative densitometric measurements in the cohort. Materials and Methods: Participants with emphysema (n = 100, 56 males and 44 females) reported in the electronic case report form of pilot SCAPIS and 100 matched controls (gender, age, height, and weight) without emphysema were included. To assess interobserver variability the randomized examinations were evaluated by two thoracic radiologists. For intraobserver variability three radiologists re-evaluated randomized examinations which they originally evaluated. The results were evaluated statistically by Krippendorff's α. The dataset was also assessed quantitively for % lung attenuation value −950 HU (LAV950), mean lung density and total lung volume by commercially available software. Results: Emphysema was visually scored as mild and Krippendorff's α was ≥0.8 for both the inter- and intraobserver agreement regarding presence of emphysema and approaching 0.8 regarding presence and extent of emphysema by location in the upper lobes. Mean LAV950 was not different between the emphysematous and the nonemphysematous participants; 8.3% and 8.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The inter- and intraobserver agreement for visual detection of mild emphysema in low-dose multidetector computed tomography was good. Surprisingly, quantitative analysis could not reliably identify participants with mild emphysema, which hampers the use of automatic evaluation. © 2019 The Association of University Radiologists
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7.
  • Aaltonen, H. L., et al. (författare)
  • Deposition of inhaled nanoparticles is reduced in subjects with COPD and correlates with the extent of emphysema : Proof of concept for a novel diagnostic technique
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - : Wiley Online Library. - 1475-0961 .- 1475-097X. ; 38:6, s. 1008-1014
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often based on spirometry, which is not sensitive to early emphysema. We have recently described a method for assessing distal airspace dimensions by measuring recovery of nanoparticles in exhaled air after a single-breath inhalation followed by breath-hold. Recovery refers to the non-deposited particle fraction. The aim of this study was to explore differences in the recovery of exhaled nanoparticles in subjects with COPD and never-smoking controls. A secondary aim was to determine whether recovery correlates with the extent of emphysema. Method: A total of 19 patients with COPD and 19 controls underwent three repeats of single-breath nanoparticle inhalation followed by breath-hold. Particle concentrations in the inhaled aerosol, and in an alveolar sample exhaled after breath-hold, were measured to obtain recovery. Findings: The patients with COPD had a significantly higher mean recovery than controls, 0·128 ± 0·063 versus 0·074 ± 0·058; P = 0·010. Also, recovery correlated significantly with computed tomography (CT) densitometry variables (P<0·01) and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL,CO; P = 0·002). Interpretation: Higher recovery for emphysema patients, relative to controls, is explained by larger diffusion distances in enlarged distal airspaces. The nanoparticle inhalation method shows potential to be developed towards a tool to diagnose emphysema.
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  • Alamidi, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • T1 Relaxation Time in Lungs of Asymptomatic Smokers.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interest in using T1 as a potential MRI biomarker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has recently increased. Since tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for development of COPD, the aim for this study was to examine whether tobacco smoking, pack-years (PY), influenced T1 of the lung parenchyma in asymptomatic current smokers.
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9.
  • Arvidsson, Daniel, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • A Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationships of Physical Activity and Body Fat With Nerve Growth Factor and Brain-Derived Neural Factor in Children
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity & Health. - : Human Kinetics. - 1543-3080. ; 15:8, s. 620-625
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neural factor (BDNF) are important for brain function and detectable in the blood. This study explored the longitudinal associations of physical activity and body fat with serum NGF and BDNF in children. Methods: Two waves of measurements were performed 2 years apart in 8- to 11-year-old children, including physical activity using the ActiGraph model 7164, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum NGF and BDNF determined by multiplex immunoassay. The first wave included 248 children. Full information maximum likelihood estimation with robust standard errors was applied in structural equation modeling. Results: Vigorous physical activity showed a direct positive longitudinal relationship with NGF (standardized coefficient beta = 0.30, P = .01) but not with BDNF (beta = 0.04, P = .84). At the same time, body fat percentage was positively related to both NGF (beta = 0.59, P < .001) and BDNF (beta = 0.17, P = .04). There was an indication of an indirect relationship of vigorous physical activity with NGF (product of unstandardized coefficient beta = -0.18, P = .02) and BDNF (beta = -0.07, P = .05) through the negative relationship with body fat percentage (beta = -0.36, P < .001). Conclusions: Vigorous physical activity is directly related to serum NGF and indirectly through the level of body fat. The relationships with serum BDNF are more complex.
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10.
  • Bernspang, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • CT lung densitometry in young adults with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 1532-3064 .- 0954-6111. ; 105:1, s. 74-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Severe (PiZZ) and moderate (PiSZ) alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency predispose to lung emphysema, especially in smokers. We hypothesized that multi-slice computed tomography (CT) might be superior to pulmonary function tests (PFT) to detect lung emphysema in AAT-deficient individuals at the age of 32 years. Methods: A subgroup of PiZZ and PiSZ individuals identified during the Swedish newborn screening programme in 1972-74 underwent multi-slice CT and PFT at the age of 32 years. From the CT scans the percentile density at 15% (PD15) and the relative area below -910 Hounsfield Units (RA(-910) HU) were calculated. The results of PFT and CT were compared between the AAT-deficient individuals and an age-matched control group. Results: Twenty-five PiZZ, 11 PiSZ and 17 PiMM individuals participated in the study. All Pi subgroups had normal lung function. The mean PD15 was 81 (SD 22) g/L in the PiZZ individuals, 96 (SD 35) g/L in the PiSZ individuals and 79 (SD 17) g/L in the PiMM individuals (ns), and the RA-910 were 30 (SD 18)%, 24 (SD 20)%, and 32 (SD 18)%, respectively (ns). For the never-smoker subgroups, in the PiZZ (n = 23), PiSZ (n = 8) and PiMM (n = 12), the mean PD15 were 95 (SD 35) g/L, 81 (SD 22) g/L, and 75 (SD 12) g/L, respectively (ns). PD15 was significantly correlated to CT derived lung size (r = -0.72; p < 0.001). Conclusions: CT densitometry revealed no signs of emphysema and no differences between the AAT-deficient individuals identified by neonatal screening and age-matched control subjects. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved,
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