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Sökning: WFRF:(Wolstenholme A.)

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1.
  • Fazey, Ioan, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science. - : Elsevier. - 2214-6296 .- 2214-6326. ; 70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
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2.
  • Richards, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Genome Sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS biology. - 1544-9173 .- 1545-7885. ; 8:2, s. e1000313-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems.
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3.
  • Keurhorst, M., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of primary healthcare providers' initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions in managing risky alcohol consumption: a cluster randomised factorial trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Implementation Science. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1748-5908. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Brief interventions in primary healthcare are cost-effective in reducing drinking problems but poorly implemented in routine practice. Although evidence about implementing brief interventions is growing, knowledge is limited with regard to impact of initial role security and therapeutic commitment on brief intervention implementation. Methods: In a cluster randomised factorial trial, 120 primary healthcare units (PHCUs) were randomised to eight groups: care as usual, training and support, financial reimbursement, and the opportunity to refer patients to an internet-based brief intervention (e-BI); paired combinations of these three strategies, and all three strategies combined. To explore the impact of initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions, we performed multilevel linear regression analyses adapted to the factorial design. Results: Data from 746 providers from 120 PHCUs were included in the analyses. Baseline role security and therapeutic commitment were found not to influence implementation of brief interventions. Furthermore, there were no significant interactions between these characteristics and allocated implementation groups. Conclusions: The extent to which providers changed their brief intervention delivery following experience of different implementation strategies was not determined by their initial attitudes towards alcohol problems. In future research, more attention is needed to unravel the causal relation between practitioners' attitudes, their actual behaviour and care improvement strategies to enhance implementation science.
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4.
  • Anderson, P., et al. (författare)
  • Improving the delivery of brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care: outcome results of the Optimizing Delivery of Health Care Intervention (ODHIN) five-country cluster randomized factorial trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 1360-0443 .- 0965-2140. ; 111:11, s. 1935-1945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To test if training and support, financial reimbursement and option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice (eBI) can increase primary health-care providers' delivery of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers. Design: Cluster randomized factorial trial with 12-week implementation and measurement period. Setting: Primary health-care units (PHCU) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Participants: A total of 120 PHCU, 24 in each of Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Interventions: PHCUs were randomized to one of eight groups: care as usual, training and support (TS), financial reimbursement (FR) and eBI; paired combinations of TS, FR and eBI, and all of FR, TS and eBI. Measurements: The primary outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adult (age 18+ years) patients screened during a 12-week implementation period. Secondary outcome measures were proportion of screen-positive patients advised; and proportion of consulting adult patients given an intervention (screening and advice to screen-positives) during the same 12-week implementation period. Findings: During a 4-week baseline measurement period, the proportion of consulting adult patients who were screened for their alcohol consumption was 0.059 per PHCU (95% CI 0.034 to 0.084). Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the logged proportion screened during the 12-week implementation period was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.13–1.95) in PHCU that received TS versus PHCU that did not receive TS; for FR, the ratio was 2.00 (95% CI = 1.56–2.56). The option of referral to eBI did not lead to a higher proportion of patients screened. The ratio for TS plus FR was 2.34 (95% CI = 1.77–3.10), and the ratio for TS plus FR plus eBI was1.68 (95% CI = 1.11–2.53). Conclusions: Providing primary health-care units with training, support and financial reimbursement for delivering Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers increases screening for alcohol consumption. Providing primary health-care units with the option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice does not appear to increase screening for alcohol consumption. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction
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5.
  • Bendtsen, P., et al. (författare)
  • Professional's Attitudes Do Not Influence Screening and Brief Interventions Rates for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Results from ODHIN Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414. ; 50:4, s. 430-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine the relation between existing levels of alcohol screening and brief intervention rates in five European jurisdictions and role security and therapeutic commitment by the participating primary healthcare professionals. Health care professionals consisting of, 409 GPs, 282 nurses and 55 other staff including psychologists, social workers and nurse aids from 120 primary health care centres participated in a cross-sectional 4-week survey. The participants registered all screening and brief intervention activities as part of their normal routine. The participants also completed the Shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ), which measure role security and therapeutic commitment. The only significant but small relationship was found between role security and screening rate in a multilevel logistic regression analysis adjusted for occupation of the provider, number of eligible patients and the random effects of jurisdictions and primary health care units (PHCU). No significant relationship was found between role security and brief intervention rate nor between therapeutic commitment and screening rate/brief intervention rate. The proportion of patients screened varied across jurisdictions between 2 and 10%. The findings show that the studied factors (role security and therapeutic commitment) are not of great importance for alcohol screening and BI rates. Given the fact that screening and brief intervention implementation rate has not changed much in the last decade in spite of increased policy emphasis, training initiatives and more research being published, this raises a question about what else is needed to enhance implementation.
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6.
  • Palacio-Vieira, J., et al. (författare)
  • Improving screening and brief intervention activities in primary health care: Secondary analysis of professional accuracy based on the AUDIT-C
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice. - : WILEY. - 1356-1294 .- 1365-2753. ; 24:2, s. 369-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction and objectiveThe ODHIN trial found that training and support and financial reimbursement increased the proportion of patients that were screened and given advice for their heavy drinking in primary health care. However, the impact of these strategies on professional accuracy in delivering screening and brief advice is underresearched and is the focus of this paper. MethodFrom 120 primary health care units (24 in each jurisdiction: Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden), 746 providers participated in the baseline and the 12-week implementation periods. Accuracy was measured in 2 ways: correctness in completing and scoring the screening instrument, AUDIT-C; the proportion of screen-negative patients given advice, and the proportion of screen-positive patients not given advice. Odds ratios of accuracy were calculated for type of profession and for intervention group: training and support, financial reimbursement, and internet-based counselling. ResultsThirty-two of 36711 questionnaires were incorrectly completed, and 65 of 29641 screen-negative patients were falsely classified. At baseline, 27% of screen-negative patients were given advice, and 22.5% screen-positive patients were not given advice. These proportions halved during the 12-week implementation period, unaffected by training. Financial reimbursement reduced the proportion of screen-positive patients not given advice (OR=0.56; 95% CI, 0.31-0.99; Pamp;lt;.05). ConclusionAlthough the use of AUDIT-C as a screening tool was accurate, a considerable proportion of risky drinkers did not receive advice, which was reduced with financial incentives.
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8.
  • Bowes, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Marked and rapid change of bone shape in acutely ACL injured knees – an exploratory analysis of the Kanon trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. - : Elsevier. - 1063-4584. ; 27:4, s. 638-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To investigate changes in knee 3D bone shape over the first 5 years after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in participants of the randomized controlled KANON-trial. Methods: Serial MR images over 5 years from 121 young (32 women, mean age 26.1 years) adults with an acute ACL tear in a previously un-injured knee were analyzed using statistical shape models for bone. A matched reference cohort of 176 individuals was selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Primary endpoint was change in bone area of the medial femoral condyle; exploratory analyses compared results by treatment and examined other knee regions. Comparisons were made using repeated measures mixed model ANOVA with adjustment for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Results: Mean medial femur bone area increased 3.2% (78.0 [95% CI 70.2 to 86.4] mm2) over 5 years after ACL injury and most prominently in knees treated with ACL reconstruction (ACLR). A higher rate of increase occurred over the first 2 years compared to the latter 3-years (66.2 [59.3 to 73.2] vs 17.6 [12.2 to 23.0] mm2) and was 6.7 times faster than in the reference cohort. The pattern and location of shape change in the extrapolated KANON data was very similar to that observed in another knee-osteoarthritis cohort. Conclusion: 3D shape modelling after acute ACL injury revealed rapid bone shape changes, already evident at 3 months. The bone-change pattern after ACL injury demonstrated flattening and bone growth on the outer margins of the condyles similar to that reported in established knee osteoarthritis.
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9.
  • Fazey, Ioan, et al. (författare)
  • Ten essentials for action-oriented and second order energy transitions, transformations and climate change research
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science. - : Elsevier. - 2214-6296 .- 2214-6326. ; 40, s. 54-70
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The most critical question for climate research is no longer about the problem, but about how to facilitate the transformative changes necessary to avoid catastrophic climate-induced change. Addressing this question, however, will require massive upscaling of research that can rapidly enhance learning about transformations. Ten essentials for guiding action-oriented transformation and energy research are therefore presented, framed in relation to second-order science. They include: (1) Focus on transformations to low-carbon, resilient living; (2) Focus on solution processes; (3) Focus on ‘how to’ practical knowledge; (4) Approach research as occurring from within the system being intervened; (5) Work with normative aspects; (6) Seek to transcend current thinking; (7) Take a multi-faceted approach to understand and shape change; (8) Acknowledge the value of alternative roles of researchers; (9) Encourage second-order experimentation; and (10) Be reflexive. Joint application of the essentials would create highly adaptive, reflexive, collaborative and impact-oriented research able to enhance capacity to respond to the climate challenge. At present, however, the practice of such approaches is limited and constrained by dominance of other approaches. For wider transformations to low carbon living and energy systems to occur, transformations will therefore also be needed in the way in which knowledge is produced and used.
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10.
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