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Sökning: WFRF:(Woodward Guy)

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1.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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  • Bennett, Elena M., et al. (författare)
  • Linking biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being : three challenges for designing research for sustainability
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. - 1877-3435 .- 1877-3443. ; 14, s. 76-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecosystem services have become a mainstream concept for the expression of values assigned by people to various functions of ecosystems. Even though the introduction of the concept has initiated a vast amount of research, progress in using this knowledge for sustainable resource use remains insufficient. We see a need to broaden the scope of research to answer three key questions that we believe will improve incorporation of ecosystem service research into decision-making for the sustainable use of natural resources to improve human well-being: (i) how are ecosystem services co-produced by social–ecological systems, (ii) who benefits from the provision of ecosystem services, and (iii) what are the best practices for the governance of ecosystem services? Here, we present these key questions, the rationale behind them, and their related scientific challenges in a globally coordinated research programme aimed towards improving sustainable ecosystem management. These questions will frame the activities of ecoSERVICES, formerly a DIVERSITAS project and now a project of Future Earth, in its role as a platform to foster global coordination of multidisciplinary sustainability science through the lens of ecosystem services.
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6.
  • Brose, Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • Body sizes of consumers and their resources
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : Ecological Society of America. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 86:9, s. 2545-2545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trophic information—who eats whom—and species’ body sizes are two of the most basic descriptions necessary to understand community structure as well as ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Consumer–resource body size ratios between predators and their prey, and parasitoids and their hosts, have recently gained increasing attention due to their important implications for species’ interaction strengths and dynamical population stability. This data set documents body sizes of consumers and their resources. We gathered body size data for the food webs of Skipwith Pond, a parasitoid community of grass-feeding chalcid wasps in British grasslands; the pelagic community of the Benguela system, a source web based on broom in the United Kingdom; Broadstone Stream, UK; the Grand Caric¸aie marsh at Lake Neuchaˆtel, Switzerland; Tuesday Lake, USA; alpine lakes in the Sierra Nevada of California; Mill Stream, UK; and the eastern Weddell Sea Shelf, Antarctica. Further consumer–resource body size data are included for planktonic predators, predatory nematodes, parasitoids, marine fish predators, freshwater invertebrates, Australian terrestrial consumers, and aphid parasitoids. Containing 16 807 records, this is the largest data set ever compiled for body sizes of consumers and their resources. In addition to body sizes, the data set includes information on consumer and resource taxonomy, the geographic location of the study, the habitat studied, the type of the feeding interaction (e.g., predacious, parasitic) and the metabolic categories of the species (e.g., invertebrate, ectotherm vertebrate). The present data set was gathered with the intent to stimulate research on effects of consumer–resource body size patterns on food-web structure, interaction-strength distributions, population dynamics, and community stability. The use of a common data set may facilitate cross-study comparisons and understanding of the relationships between different scientific approaches and models.
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  • Hladyz, Sally, et al. (författare)
  • Impacts of an aggressive riparian invader on community structure and ecosystem functioning in stream food webs
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1365-2664. ; 48:2, s. 443-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • P>1. Bioassessment in running waters has focused primarily on the impacts of organic pollution on community structure. Other stressors (e.g. invasive species) and impacts on ecosystem processes have been largely ignored in many riverine biomonitoring schemes, despite being required increasingly by environmental legislation. 2. Exotic riparian plants can exert potentially powerful stresses by altering both autochthonous and allochthonous trophic pathways. We examined the impact of Rhododendron ponticum on community structure and three key ecosystem processes (decomposition, primary production, and herbivory) in nine streams bordered by three characteristic vegetation types (deciduous woodland, pasture, or Rhododendron). 3. Community structure and ecosystem process rates differed among vegetation types, with autochthonous pathways being relatively more important in the pasture streams than in the woodland reference streams. Overall ecosystem functioning, however, was compromised in the invaded streams because both allochthonous and autochthonous inputs were impaired. Rhododendron's poor quality litter and densely shaded canopy suppressed decomposition rates and algal production, and the availability of resources to consumer assemblages. 4. Synthesis and applications. Combining measures of invertebrate abundance, rates of litter decomposition and algal production in future bioassessments of stream ecosystem functioning can help to make better informed management decisions and to develop more focused priorities for mediating the negative effects of riparian invasions. We provide a series of specific recommendations for dealing with invasive riparian plants in general, and Rhododendron in particular, in order to minimize their impacts on stream ecosystems. For instance, where the invader produces poor quality litter the canopy should be kept as open as possible over the stream channel to reduce impacts on algal production, thereby retaining alternative food chains that can be exploited by generalist consumers in the absence of viable detrital resources.
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  • Hladyz, Sally, et al. (författare)
  • Stream ecosystem functioning in an agricultural landscape : the importance of terrestrial-aquatic linkages
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems in a human-modified landscape. - San Diego : Academic Press. - 9780123747945 ; 44, s. 211-276
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The loss of native riparian vegetation and its replacement with non-native species or grazing land for agriculture is a worldwide phenomenon, but one that is prevalent in Europe, reflecting the heavily-modified nature of the continent's landscape. The consequences of these riparian alterations for freshwater ecosystems remain largely unknown, largely because bioassessment has traditionally focused on the impacts of organic pollution on community structure. We addressed the need for a broader perspective, which encompasses changes at the catchment scale, by comparing ecosystem processes in woodland reference sites with those with altered riparian zones. We assessed a range of riparian modifications, including clearance for pasture and replacement of woodland with a range of low diversity plantations, in 100 streams to obtain a continental-scale perspective of the major types of alterations across Europe. Subsequently, we focused on pasture streams, as an especially prevalent widespread riparian alteration, by characterising their structural (e.g. invertebrate and fish communities) and functional (e.g. litter decomposition, algal production, herbivory) attributes in a country (Ireland) dominated by this type of landscape modification, via field and laboratory experiments. We found that microbes became increasingly important as agents of decomposition relative to macrofauna (invertebrates) in impacted sites in general and in pasture streams in particular. Resource quality of grass litter (e.g., carbon : nutrient ratios, lignin and cellulose content) was a key driver of decomposition rates in pasture streams. These systems also relied more heavily on autochthonous algal production than was the case in woodland streams, which were more detrital based. These findings suggest that these pasture streams might be fundamentally different from their native, ancestral woodland state, with a shift towards greater reliance on autochthonous-based processes. This could have a destabilizing effect on the dynamics of the food web relative to the slower, detrital-based pathways that dominate in woodland streams.
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10.
  • Mace, Georgina M., et al. (författare)
  • Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Global Environmental Change. - 0959-3780 .- 1872-9495. ; 28, s. 289-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The idea that there is an identifiable set of boundaries, beyond which anthropogenic change will put the Earth system outside a safe operating space for humanity, is attracting interest in the scientific community and gaining support in the environmental policy world. Rockstrom et al. (2009) identify nine such boundaries and highlight biodiversity loss as being the single boundary where current rates of extinction put the Earth system furthest outside the safe operating space. Here we review the evidence to support a boundary based on extinction rates and identify weaknesses with this metric and its bearing on humanity's needs. While changes to biodiversity are of undisputed importance, we show that both extinction rate and species richness are weak metrics for this purpose, and they do not scale well from local to regional or global levels. We develop alternative approaches to determine biodiversity loss boundaries and extend our analysis to consider large-scale responses in the Earth system that could affect its suitability for complex human societies which in turn are mediated by the biosphere. We suggest three facets of biodiversity on which a boundary could be based: the genetic library of life; functional type diversity; and biome condition and extent. For each of these we explore the science needed to indicate how it might be measured and how changes would affect human societies. In addition to these three facets, we show how biodiversity's role in supporting a safe operating space for humanity may lie primarily in its interactions with other boundaries, suggesting an immediate area of focus for scientists and policymakers.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 17
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