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Sökning: WFRF:(Worrall Bradford B.)

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1.
  • Ligthart, Symen, et al. (författare)
  • Genome Analyses of >200,000 Individuals Identify 58 Loci for Chronic Inflammation and Highlight Pathways that Link Inflammation and Complex Disorders
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. ; 103:5, s. 691-706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.
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2.
  • Roselli, Carolina, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study for atrial fibrillation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:9, s. 1225-1233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects more than 33 million individuals worldwide(1) and has a complex heritability(2). We conducted the largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for AF to date, consisting of more than half a million individuals, including 65,446 with AF. In total, we identified 97 loci significantly associated with AF, including 67 that were novel in a combined-ancestry analysis, and 3 that were novel in a European-specific analysis. We sought to identify AF-associated genes at the GWAS loci by performing RNA-sequencing and expression quantitative trait locus analyses in 101 left atrial samples, the most relevant tissue for AF. We also performed transcriptome-wide analyses that identified 57 AF-associated genes, 42 of which overlap with GWAS loci. The identified loci implicate genes enriched within cardiac developmental, electrophysiological, contractile and structural pathways. These results extend our understanding of the biological pathways underlying AF and may facilitate the development of therapeutics for AF.
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3.
  • Christophersen, Ingrid E., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale analyses of common and rare variants identify 12 new loci associated with atrial fibrillation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:6, s. 946-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation affects more than 33 million people worldwide and increases the risk of stroke, heart failure, and death(1,2). Fourteen genetic loci have been associated with atrial fibrillation in European and Asian ancestry groups(3-7). To further define the genetic basis of atrial fibrillation, we performed large-scale, trans-ancestry meta-analyses of common and rare variant association studies. The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) included 17,931 individuals with atrial fibrillation and 115,142 referents; the exome-wide association studies (ExWAS) and rare variant association studies (RVAS) involved 22,346 cases and 132,086 referents. We identified 12 new genetic loci that exceeded genome-wide significance, implicating genes involved in cardiac electrical and structural remodeling. Our results nearly double the number of known genetic loci for atrial fibrillation, provide insights into the molecular basis of atrial fibrillation, and may facilitate the identification of new potential targets for drug discovery(8).
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4.
  • Debette, Stéphanie, et al. (författare)
  • Common variation in PHACTR1 is associated with susceptibility to cervical artery dissection
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47, s. 78-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a mural hematoma in a carotid or vertebral artery, is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults although relatively uncommon in the general population (incidence of 2.6/100,000 per year)1. Minor cervical traumas, infection, migraine and hypertension are putative risk factors1–3, and inverse associations with obesity and hypercholesterolemia are described3,4. No confirmed genetic susceptibility factors have been identified using candidate gene approaches5. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1 1,393 CeAD cases and 1 14,416 controls. The rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1) was associated with lower CeAD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–0.82; P = 4.46 × 1 10−10), with confirmation in independent follow-up samples (659 CeAD cases and 2,648 controls; P = 3.91 1 × 1 10−3; combined P = 1 1.00 × 1 10−1111). The rs9349379[G] allele was previously shown to be associated with lower risk of migraine and increased risk of myocardial infarction6–9. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this pleiotropy might provide important information on the biological underpinnings of these disabling conditions.
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5.
  • Haycock, Philip C., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases A Mendelian Randomization Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - American Medical Association. - 2374-2437. ; 3:5, s. 636-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. DATA SOURCES: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015. STUDY SELECTION: GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation. RESULTS: Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [ 95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of association between genetically increased telomere length and risk of psychiatric, autoimmune, inflammatory, diabetic, and other non-neoplastic diseases, except for coronary heart disease (OR, 0.78 [ 95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 0.63 [ 95% CI, 0.49-0.81]), celiac disease (OR, 0.42 [ 95% CI, 0.28-0.61]) and interstitial lung disease (OR, 0.09 [ 95% CI, 0.05-0.15]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: It is likely that longer telomeres increase risk for several cancers but reduce risk for some non-neoplastic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
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6.
  • Traylor, Matthew, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation at 16q24.2 is associated with small vessel stroke
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0364-5134. ; 81:3, s. 383-394
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful at identifying associations with stroke and stroke subtypes, but have not yet identified any associations solely with small vessel stroke (SVS). SVS comprises one quarter of all ischemic stroke and is a major manifestation of cerebral small vessel disease, the primary cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Studies across neurological traits have shown that younger-onset cases have an increased genetic burden. We leveraged this increased genetic burden by performing an age-at-onset informed GWAS meta-analysis, including a large younger-onset SVS population, to identify novel associations with stroke. Methods: We used a three-stage age-at-onset informed GWAS to identify novel genetic variants associated with stroke. On identifying a novel locus associated with SVS, we assessed its influence on other small vessel disease phenotypes, as well as on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of nearby genes, and on DNA methylation of nearby CpG sites in whole blood and in the fetal brain. Results: We identified an association with SVS in 4,203 cases and 50,728 controls on chromosome 16q24.2 (odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval {CI}] = 1.16 [1.10–1.22]; p = 3.2 × 10−9). The lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs12445022) was also associated with cerebral white matter hyperintensities (OR [95% CI] = 1.10 [1.05–1.16]; p = 5.3 × 10−5; N = 3,670), but not intracerebral hemorrhage (OR [95% CI] = 0.97 [0.84–1.12]; p = 0.71; 1,545 cases, 1,481 controls). rs12445022 is associated with mRNA expression of ZCCHC14 in arterial tissues (p = 9.4 × 10−7) and DNA methylation at probe cg16596957 in whole blood (p = 5.3 × 10−6). Interpretation: 16q24.2 is associated with SVS. Associations of the locus with expression of ZCCHC14 and DNA methylation suggest the locus acts through changes to regulatory elements. Ann Neurol 2017;81:383–394.
7.
  • Anderson, Christopher D., et al. (författare)
  • Common Variants Within Oxidative Phosphorylation Genes Influence Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation. - American Heart Association. - 1524-4628. ; 44:3, s. 612-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-Previous studies demonstrated association between mitochondrial DNA variants and ischemic stroke (IS). We investigated whether variants within a larger set of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes encoded by both autosomal and mitochondrial DNA were associated with risk of IS and, based on our results, extended our investigation to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods-This association study used a discovery cohort of 1643 individuals, a validation cohort of 2432 individuals for IS, and an extension cohort of 1476 individuals for ICH. Gene-set enrichment analysis was performed on all structural OXPHOS genes, as well as genes contributing to individual respiratory complexes. Gene-sets passing gene-set enrichment analysis were tested by constructing genetic scores using common variants residing within each gene. Associations between each variant and IS that emerged in the discovery cohort were examined in validation and extension cohorts. Results-IS was associated with genetic risk scores in OXPHOS as a whole (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; P=0.008) and complex I (OR, 1.06; P=0.050). Among IS subtypes, small vessel stroke showed association with OXPHOS (OR, 1.16; P=0.007), complex I (OR, 1.13; P=0.027), and complex IV (OR, 1.14; P=0.018). To further explore this small vessel association, we extended our analysis to ICH, revealing association between deep hemispheric ICH and complex IV (OR, 1.08; P=0.008). Conclusions-This pathway analysis demonstrates association between common genetic variants within OXPHOS genes and stroke. The associations for small vessel stroke and deep ICH suggest that genetic variation in OXPHOS influences small vessel pathobiology. Further studies are needed to identify culprit genetic variants and assess their functional consequences. (Stroke. 2013;44:612-619.)
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8.
  • Bellenguez, Celine, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies a variant in HDAC9 associated with large vessel ischemic stroke
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 44:3, s. 141-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic factors have been implicated in stroke risk, but few replicated associations have been reported. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for ischemic stroke and its subtypes in 3,548 affected individuals and 5,972 controls, all of European ancestry. Replication of potential signals was performed in 5,859 affected individuals and 6,281 controls. We replicated previous associations for cardioembolic stroke near PITX2 and ZFHX3 and for large vessel stroke at a 9p21 locus. We identified a new association for large vessel stroke within HDAC9 (encoding histone deacetylase 9) on chromosome 7p21.1 (including further replication in an additional 735 affected individuals and 28,583 controls) (rs11984041; combined P = 1.87 x 10(-11); odds ratio (OR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-1.57). All four loci exhibited evidence for heterogeneity of effect across the stroke subtypes, with some and possibly all affecting risk for only one subtype. This suggests distinct genetic architectures for different stroke subtypes.
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9.
  • Kilarski, Laura L., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis in more than 17,900 cases of ischemic stroke reveals a novel association at 12q24.12
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 83:8, s. 678-685
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Immunochip array in 3,420 cases of ischemic stroke and 6,821 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with data from more than 14,000 additional ischemic stroke cases. Methods: Using the Immunochip, we genotyped 3,420 ischemic stroke cases and 6,821 controls. After imputation we meta-analyzed the results with imputed GWAS data from 3,548 cases and 5,972 controls recruited from the ischemic stroke WTCCC2 study, and with summary statistics from a further 8,480 cases and 56,032 controls in the METASTROKE consortium. A final in silico "look-up" of 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 2,522 cases and 1,899 controls was performed. Associations were also examined in 1,088 cases with intracerebral hemorrhage and 1,102 controls. Results: In an overall analysis of 17,970 cases of ischemic stroke and 70,764 controls, we identified a novel association on chromosome 12q24 (rs10744777, odds ratio [OR] 1.10 [1.07-1.13], p = 7.12 x 10(-11)) with ischemic stroke. The association was with all ischemic stroke rather than an individual stroke subtype, with similar effect sizes seen in different stroke subtypes. There was no association with intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 1.03 [0.90-1.17], p = 0.695). Conclusion: Our results show, for the first time, a genetic risk locus associated with ischemic stroke as a whole, rather than in a subtype-specific manner. This finding was not associated with intracerebral hemorrhage.
10.
  • Malik, Rainer, et al. (författare)
  • Low-frequency and common genetic variation in ischemic stroke : The METASTROKE collaboration
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 86:13, s. 26-1217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of common and low-frequency genetic variants on the risk of ischemic stroke (all IS) and etiologic stroke subtypes.METHODS: We meta-analyzed 12 individual genome-wide association studies comprising 10,307 cases and 19,326 controls imputed to the 1000 Genomes (1 KG) phase I reference panel. We selected variants showing the highest degree of association (p < 1E-5) in the discovery phase for replication in Caucasian (13,435 cases and 29,269 controls) and South Asian (2,385 cases and 5,193 controls) samples followed by a transethnic meta-analysis. We further investigated the p value distribution for different bins of allele frequencies for all IS and stroke subtypes.RESULTS: We showed genome-wide significance for 4 loci: ABO for all IS, HDAC9 for large vessel disease (LVD), and both PITX2 and ZFHX3 for cardioembolic stroke (CE). We further refined the association peaks for ABO and PITX2. Analyzing different allele frequency bins, we showed significant enrichment in low-frequency variants (allele frequency <5%) for both LVD and small vessel disease, and an enrichment of higher frequency variants (allele frequency 10% and 30%) for CE (all p < 1E-5).CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the missing heritability in IS subtypes can in part be attributed to low-frequency and rare variants. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify the variants associated with all IS and stroke subtypes.
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