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Sökning: WFRF:(Yang XJ)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
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6.
  • Eleonora Hedlund, Eva-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor cell-derived placental growth factor sensitizes antiangiogenic and antitumor effects of anti-VEGF drugs
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 110:2, s. 654-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of placental growth factor (PlGF) in modulation of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth remains an enigma. Furthermore, anti-PlGF therapy in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth remains controversial in preclinical tumor models. Here we show that in both human and mouse tumors, PlGF induced the formation of dilated and normalized vascular networks that were hypersensitive to anti-VEGF and anti-VEGFR-2 therapy, leading to dormancy of a substantial number of avascular tumors. Loss-of-function using plgf shRNA in a human choriocarcinoma significantly accelerated tumor growth rates and acquired resistance to anti-VEGF drugs, whereas gain-of-function of PlGF in a mouse tumor increased anti-VEGF sensitivity. Further, we show that VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-1 blocking antibodies displayed opposing effects on tumor angiogenesis. VEGFR-1 blockade and genetic deletion of the tyrosine kinase domain of VEGFR-1 resulted in enhanced tumor angiogenesis. These findings demonstrate that tumor-derived PlGF negatively modulates tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth and may potentially serve as a predictive marker of anti-VEGF cancer therapy.
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7.
  • Hosaka, Kayoko, et al. (författare)
  • Tumour PDGF-BB expression levels determine dual effects of anti-PDGF drugs on vascular remodelling and metastasis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 4:2129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) drugs are routinely used in front-line therapy for the treatment of various cancers, but the molecular mechanism underlying their dose-dependent impact on vascular remodelling remains poorly understood. Here we show that anti-PDGF drugs significantly inhibit tumour growth and metastasis in high PDGF-BB-producing tumours by preventing pericyte loss and vascular permeability, whereas they promote tumour cell dissemination and metastasis in PDGF-BB-low-producing or PDGF-BB-negative tumours by ablating pericytes from tumour vessels. We show that this opposing effect is due to PDGF-beta signalling in pericytes. Persistent exposure of pericytes to PDGF-BB markedly downregulates PDGF-beta and inactivation of the PDGF-beta signalling decreases integrin alpha 1 beta 1 levels, which impairs pericyte adhesion to extracellular matrix components in blood vessels. Our data suggest that tumour PDGF-BB levels may serve as a biomarker for selection of tumour-bearing hosts for anti-PDGF therapy and unsupervised use of anti-PDGF drugs could potentially promote tumour invasion and metastasis.
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8.
  • Iwamoto, Hideki, et al. (författare)
  • PlGF-induced VEGFR1-dependent vascular remodeling determines opposing antitumor effects and drug resistance to Dll4-Notch inhibitors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 2375-2548. ; 1:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inhibition of Dll4 (delta-like ligand 4)-Notch signaling-mediated tumor angiogenesis is an attractive approach in cancer therapy. However, inhibition of Dll4-Notch signaling has produced different effects in various tumors, and no biomarkers are available for predicting the anti-Dll4-Notch-associated antitumor activity. We show that human and mouse tumor cell-derived placental growth factor (PlGF) is a key determinant of the Dll4-Notch-induced vascular remodeling and tumor growth. In natural PlGF-expressing human tumors, inhibition of Dll4-Notch signaling markedly accelerated tumor growth by increasing blood perfusion in nonleaking tumor vasculatures. Conversely, in PlGF-negative tumors, Dll4 inhibition suppressed tumor growth by the formation of nonproductive and leaky vessels. Surprisingly, genetic inactivation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) completely abrogated the PlGF-modulated vascular remodeling and tumor growth, indicating a crucial role for VEGFR1-mediated signals in modulating Dll4-Notch functions. These findings provide mechanistic insights on PlGF-VEGFR1 signaling in the modulation of the Dll4-Notch pathway in angiogenesis and tumor growth, and have therapeutic implications of PlGF as a biomarker for predicting the antitumor benefits of Dll4 and Notch inhibitors.
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9.
  • Yang, Xiaojuan, et al. (författare)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent spatiotemporal dual roles of placental growth factor in modulation of angiogenesis and tumor growth
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 110:34, s. 13932-13937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Placental growth factor (PIGF) remodels tumor vasculatures toward a normalized phenotype, which affects tumor growth, invasion and drug responses. However, the coordinative and spatiotemporal relation between PIGF and VEGF in modulation of tumor angiogenesis and vascular remodeling is less understood. Here we report that PlGF positively and negatively modulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling through a VEGF-dependent mechanism. In two independent tumor models, we show that PlGF inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis and displayed a marked vascular remodeling effect, leading to normalized microvessels with infrequent vascular branches and increased perivascular cell coverage. Surprisingly, elimination of VEGF gene (i.e., VEGF-null) in PIGF-expressing tumors resulted in (i) accelerated tumor growth rates and angiogenesis and (ii) complete attenuation of PIGF-induced vascular normalization. Thus, PIGF positively and negatively modulates tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling through VEGF-dependent spatiotemporal mechanisms. Our data uncover molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between PIGF and VEGF in modulation of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and have conceptual implication for antiangiogenic cancer therapy.
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10.
  • Yang, Xiaojuan, et al. (författare)
  • VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A-independent mechanism and serves as a marker of poor prognosis for cancer patients
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 112:22, s. E2900-E2909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The biological functions of VEGF-B in cancer progression remain poorly understood. Here, we report that VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through the remodeling of tumor microvasculature. Knockdown of VEGF-B in tumors resulted in increased perivascular cell coverage and impaired pulmonary metastasis of human melanomas. In contrast, the gain of VEGF-B function in tumors led to pseudonormalized tumor vasculatures that were highly leaky and poorly perfused. Tumors expressing high levels of VEGF-B were more metastatic, although primary tumor growth was largely impaired. Similarly, VEGF-B in a VEGF-A-null tumor resulted in attenuated primary tumor growth but substantial pulmonary metastases. VEGF-B also led to highly metastatic phenotypes in Vegfr1 tk(-/-) mice and mice treated with anti-VEGF-A. These data indicate that VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A-independent mechanism. High expression levels of VEGF-B in two large-cohort studies of human patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma correlated with poor survival. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that VEGF-B is a vascular remodeling factor promoting cancer metastasis and that targeting VEGF-B may be an important therapeutic approach for cancer metastasis.
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