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Sökning: WFRF:(Yaqoob T.)

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1.
  • Edelson, R. A., et al. (författare)
  • Multiwavelength observations of short-timescale variability in NGC 4151. IV. Analysis of multiwavelength continuum variability
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 470:1, s. 364-377377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For pt.III see ibid., vol.470, no.1, p.349-63 (1996). Combines data from the three preceding papers in order to analyze the multi wave-band variability and spectral energy distribution of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 during the 1993 December monitoring campaign. The source, which was near its peak historical brightness, showed strong, correlated variability at X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical wavelengths. The strongest variations were seen in medium-energy (~1.5 keV) X-rays, with a normalized variability amplitude (NVA) of 24%. Weaker (NVA=6%) variations (uncorrelated with those at lower energies) were seen at soft gamma-ray energies of ~100 keV. No significant variability was seen in softer (0.1-1 keV) X-ray bands. In the ultraviolet/optical regime, the NVA decreased from 9% to 1% as the wavelength increased from 1275 to 6900 Aring. These data do not probe extreme ultraviolet (1200 Aring to 0.1 keV) or hard X-ray (250 keV) variability. The phase differences between variations in different bands were consistent with zero lag, with upper limits of lsim0.15 day between 1275 Aring and the other ultraviolet bands, lsim0.3 day between 1275 Aring and 1.5 keV, and lsim1 day between 1275 and 5125 Aring. These tight limits represent more than an order of magnitude improvement over those determined in previous multi-wave-band AGN monitoring campaigns. The ultraviolet fluctuation power spectra showed no evidence for periodicity, but were instead well fitted with a very steep, red power law (ales-2.5)
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2.
  • Crenshaw, D. M., et al. (författare)
  • Multiwavelength observations of short-timescale variability in NGC 4151. I. Ultraviolet observations
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 470:1, s. 322-335335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Presents the results of an intensive ultraviolet monitoring campaign on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, as part of an effort to study its short-timescale variability over a broad range in wavelength. The nucleus of NGC 4151 was observed continuously with the International Ultraviolet Explorer for 9.3 days, yielding a pair of LWP and SWP spectra every ~70 minutes, and during 4 hr periods for 4 days prior to and 5 days after the continuous-monitoring period. The sampling frequency of the observations is an order of magnitude higher than that of any previous UV monitoring campaign on a Seyfert galaxy. The continuum fluxes in bands from 1275 to 2688 Aring went through four significant and well-defined ldquoeventsrdquo of duration 2-3 days during the continuous-monitoring period. The authors find that the amplitudes of the continuum variations decrease with increasing wavelength, which extends a general trend for this and other Seyfert galaxies to smaller timescales (i.e., a few days). The continuum variations in all the UV bands are simultaneous to within an accuracy of ~0.15 days, providing a strict constraint on continuum models. The emission-line light curves show only one major event during the continuous monitoring (a slow rise followed by a shallow dip) and do not correlate well with continuum light curves over the short duration of the campaign, because the timescale for continuum variations is apparently smaller than the response times of the emission lines
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4.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Atmospheric gas dynamics in the Perseus cluster observed with Hitomi
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 70:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extending the earlier measurements reported in Hitomi collaboration (2016, Nature, 535, 117), we examine the atmospheric gas motions within the central 100 kpc of the Perseus cluster using observations obtained with the Hitomi satellite. After correcting for the point spread function of the telescope and using optically thin emission lines, we find that the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the hot gas is remarkably low and mostly uniform. The velocity dispersion reaches a maxima of approximately 200 km s(-1) toward the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) and toward the AGN inflated northwestern ghost bubble. Elsewhere within the observed region, the velocity dispersion appears constant around 100 km s(-1). We also detect a velocity gradient with a 100 km s(-1) amplitude across the cluster core, consistent with large-scale sloshing of the core gas. If the observed gas motions are isotropic, the kinetic pressure support is less than 10% of the thermal pressure support in the cluster core. The well-resolved, optically thin emission lines have Gaussian shapes, indicating that the turbulent driving scale is likely below 100 kpc, which is consistent with the size of the AGN jet inflated bubbles. We also report the first measurement of the ion temperature in the intracluster medium, which we find to be consistent with the electron temperature. In addition, we present a new measurement of the redshift of the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 1275.
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5.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Atomic data and spectral modeling constraints from high-resolution X-ray observations of the Perseus cluster with Hitomi
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 70:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer spectrum of the Perseus cluster, with similar to 5 eV resolution in the 2-9 keV band, offers an unprecedented benchmark of the atomic modeling and database for hot collisional plasmas. It reveals both successes and challenges of the current atomic data and models. The latest versions of AtomDB/APEC (3.0.8), SPEX (3.03.00), and CHIANTI (8.0) all provide reasonable fits to the broad-band spectrum, and are in close agreement on best-fit temperature, emission measure, and abundances of a few elements such as Ni. For the Fe abundance, the APEC and SPEX measurements differ by 16%, which is 17 times higher than the statistical uncertainty. This is mostly attributed to the differences in adopted collisional excitation and dielectronic recombination rates of the strongest emission lines. We further investigate and compare the sensitivity of the derived physical parameters to the astrophysical source modeling and instrumental effects. The Hitomi results show that accurate atomic data and models are as important as the astrophysical modeling and instrumental calibration aspects. Substantial updates of atomic databases and targeted laboratory measurements are needed to get the current data and models ready for the data from the next Hitomi-level mission.
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6.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of polarized gamma-ray emission from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 70:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results from the Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) observation of the Crab nebula. The main part of SGD is a Compton camera, which in addition to being a spectrometer, is capable of measuring polarization of gamma-ray photons. The Crab nebula is one of the brightest X-ray / gamma-ray sources on the sky, and, the only source from which polarized X-ray photons have been detected. SGD observed the Crab nebula during the initial test observation phase of Hitomi. We performed the data analysis of the SGD observation, the SGD background estimation and the SGD Monte Carlo simulations, and, successfully detected polarized gamma-ray emission from the Crab nebula with only about 5 ks exposure time. The obtained polarization fraction of the phase-integrated Crab emission (sum of pulsar and nebula emissions) is (22.1% +/- 10.6%), and, the polarization angle is 110.degrees 7 + 13.degrees 2 /-13.degrees 0 in the energy range of 60-160 keV (The errors correspond to the 1 sigma deviation). The confidence level of the polarization detection was 99.3%. The polarization angle measured by SGD is about one sigma deviation with the projected spin axis of the pulsar, 124.degrees 0 +/- 0.degrees 1.
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7.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Glimpse of the highly obscured HMXB IGR J16318-4848 with Hitomi
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 70:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on a Hitomi observation of IGR J16318-4848, a high-mass X-ray binary system with an extremely strong absorption of N-H similar to 10(24) cm(-2). Previous X-ray studies revealed that its spectrum is dominated by strong fluorescence lines of Fe as well as continuum emission lines. For physical and geometrical insight into the nature of the reprocessing material, we utilized the high spectroscopic resolving power of the X-ray microcalorimeter (the soft X-ray spectrometer: SXS) and the wide-band sensitivity by the soft and hard X-ray imagers (SXI and HXI) aboard Hitomi. Even though the photon counts are limited due to unintended off-axis pointing, the SXS spectrum resolves Fe K alpha(1) and K alpha(2) lines and puts strong constraints on the line centroid and line width. The line width corresponds to a velocity of 160(-70)(+300) km s(-1). This represents the most accurate, and smallest, width measurement of this line made so far from the any X-ray binary, much less than the Doppler broadening and Doppler shift expected from speeds that are characteristic of similar systems. Combined with the K-shell edge energy measured by the SXI and HXI spectra, the ionization state of Fe is estimated to be in the range of Fe I-IV. Considering the estimated ionization parameter and the distance between the X-ray source and the absorber, the density and thickness of the materials are estimated. The extraordinarily strong absorption and the absence of a Compton shoulder component have been confirmed. These characteristics suggest reprocessing materials that are distributed in a narrow solid angle or scattering, primarily by warm free electrons or neutral hydrogen. This measurement was achieved using the SXS detection of 19 photons. It provides strong motivation for follow-up observations of this and other X-ray binaries using the X-ray Astrophysics Recovery Mission and other comparable future instruments.
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8.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Hitomi observation of radio galaxy NGC 1275 : The first X-ray microcalorimeter spectroscopy of Fe-K alpha line emission from an active galactic nucleus
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 70:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The origin of the narrow Fe-K alpha fluorescence line at 6.4 keV from active galactic nuclei has long been under debate; some of the possible sites are the outer accretion disk, the broad line region, a molecular torus, or interstellar/intracluster media. In 2016 February-March, we performed the first X-ray microcalorimeter spectroscopy with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board the Hitomi satellite of the Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxy NGC 1275 at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. With the high-energy resolution of similar to 5 eV at 6 keV achieved by Hitomi/SXS, we detected the Fe-K alpha line with similar to 5.4 sigma significance. The velocity width is constrained to be 500-1600 km s(-1) (FWHM for Gaussian models) at 90% confidence. The SXS also constrains the continuum level from the NGC 1275 nucleus up to similar to 20 keV, giving an equivalent width of similar to 20 eV for the 6.4 keV line. Because the velocity width is narrower than that of the broad H alpha line of similar to 2750 km s(-1), we can exclude a large contribution to the line flux from the accretion disk and the broad line region. Furthermore, we performed pixel map analyses on the Hitomi/SXS data and image analyses on the Chandra archival data, and revealed that the Fe-K alpha line comes from a region within similar to 1.6 kpc of the NGC 1275 core, where an active galactic nucleus emission dominates, rather than that from intracluster media. Therefore, we suggest that the source of the Fe-K alpha line from NGC 1275 is likely a low-covering-fraction molecular torus or a rotating molecular disk which probably extends from a parsec to hundreds of parsecs scale in the active galactic nucleus system.
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9.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Hitomi observations of the LMC SNR N 132 D : Highly redshifted X-ray emission from iron ejecta
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 70:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Hitomi observations of N 132 D, a young, X-ray bright, O-rich core-collapse supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Despite a very short observation of only 3.7 ks, the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) easily detects the line complexes of highly ionized S K and Fe K with 16-17 counts in each. The Fe feature is measured for the first time at high spectral resolution. Based on the plausible assumption that the Fe K emission is dominated by He-like ions, we find that the material responsible for this Fe emission is highly redshifted at similar to 800 km s(-1) compared to the local LMC interstellar medium (ISM), with a 90% credible interval of 50-1500 km s(-1) if a weakly informative prior is placed on possible line broadening. This indicates (1) that the Fe emission arises from the supernova ejecta, and (2) that these ejecta are highly asymmetric, since no blueshifted component is found. The S K velocity is consistent with the local LMC ISM, and is likely from swept-up ISM material. These results are consistent with spatial mapping that shows the He-like Fe concentrated in the interior of the remnant and the S tracing the outer shell. The results also show that even with a very small number of counts, direct velocity measurements from Doppler-shifted lines detected in extended objects like supernova remnants are now possible. Thanks to the very low SXS background of similar to 1 event per spectral resolution element per 100 ks, such results are obtainable during short pointed or slew observations with similar instruments. This highlights the power of high-spectral-resolution imaging observations, and demonstrates the new window that has been opened with Hitomi and will be greatly widened with future missions such as the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) and Athena.
  •  
10.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Hitomi X-ray observation of the pulsar wind nebula G21.5-0.9
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 70:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present results from the Hitomi X-ray observation of a young composite-type supernova remnant (SNR) G21.5-0.9, whose emission is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) contribution. The X-ray spectra in the 0.8-80 keV range obtained with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS), Soft X-ray Imager, and Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) show a significant break in the continuum as previously found with the NuSTAR observation. After taking into account all known emissions from the SNR other than the PWN itself, we find that the Hitomi spectra can be fitted with a broken power law with photon indices of Gamma(1) = 1.74 +/- 0.02 and Gamma(2) = 2.14 +/- 0.01 below and above the break at 7.1 +/- 0.3 keV, which is significantly lower than the NuSTAR result (similar to 9.0 keV). The spectral break cannot be reproduced by time-dependent particle injection one-zone spectral energy distribution models, which strongly indicates that a more complex emission model is needed, as suggested by recent theoretical models. We also search for narrow emission or absorption lines with the SXS, and perform a timing analysis of PSR J1833-1034 with the HXI and the Soft Gamma-ray Detector. No significant pulsation is found from the pulsar. However, unexpectedly, narrow absorption line features are detected in the SXS data at 4.2345 keV and 9.296 keV with a significance of 3.65 sigma. While the origin of these features is not understood, their mere detection opens up a new field of research and was only possible with the high resolution, sensitivity, and ability to measure extended sources provided by an X-ray microcalorimeter.
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