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Sökning: WFRF:(Yin Xin)

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  • Block, Keith I., et al. (författare)
  • Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Cancer Biology. - Academic Press. - 1044-579X .- 1096-3650. ; 35, s. S276-S304
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of "personalized" oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistant immortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that are not reliant upon the same mechanisms as those which have been targeted). To address these limitations, an international task force of 180 scientists was assembled to explore the concept of a low-toxicity "broadspectrum" therapeutic approach that could simultaneously target many key pathways and mechanisms. Using cancer hallmark phenotypes and the tumor microenvironment to account for the various aspects of relevant cancer biology, interdisciplinary teams reviewed each hallmark area and nominated a wide range of high-priority targets (74 in total) that could be modified to improve patient outcomes. For these targets, corresponding low-toxicity therapeutic approaches were then suggested, many of which were phytochemicals. Proposed actions on each target and all of the approaches were further reviewed for known effects on other hallmark areas and the tumor microenvironment Potential contrary or procarcinogenic effects were found for 3.9% of the relationships between targets and hallmarks, and mixed evidence of complementary and contrary relationships was found for 7.1%. Approximately 67% of the relationships revealed potentially complementary effects, and the remainder had no known relationship. Among the approaches, 1.1% had contrary, 2.8% had mixed and 62.1% had complementary relationships. These results suggest that a broad-spectrum approach should be feasible from a safety standpoint. This novel approach has potential to be relatively inexpensive, it should help us address stages and types of cancer that lack conventional treatment, and it may reduce relapse risks. A proposed agenda for future research is offered. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p>
  • Haycock, Philip C., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases A Mendelian Randomization Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - American Medical Association. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 3:5, s. 636-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IMPORTANCE: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. DATA SOURCES: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015. STUDY SELECTION: GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation. RESULTS: Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [ 95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of association between genetically increased telomere length and risk of psychiatric, autoimmune, inflammatory, diabetic, and other non-neoplastic diseases, except for coronary heart disease (OR, 0.78 [ 95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 0.63 [ 95% CI, 0.49-0.81]), celiac disease (OR, 0.42 [ 95% CI, 0.28-0.61]) and interstitial lung disease (OR, 0.09 [ 95% CI, 0.05-0.15]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: It is likely that longer telomeres increase risk for several cancers but reduce risk for some non-neoplastic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.</p>
  • Bai, Licheng, et al. (författare)
  • Explaining the Size Dependence in Platinum-Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Hydrogenation Reactions
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Angewandte Chemie International Edition. - 1433-7851 .- 1521-3773. ; 55:50, s. 15656-15661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Hydrogenation reactions are industrially important reactions that typically require unfavorably high H-2 pressure and temperature for many functional groups. Herein we reveal surprisingly strong size-dependent activity of Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) in catalyzing this reaction. Based on unambiguous spectral analyses, the size effect has been rationalized by the size-dependent d-band electron structure of the PtNPs. This understanding enables production of a catalyst with size of 1.2 nm, which shows a sixfold increase in turnover frequency and 28-fold increase in mass activity in the regioselective hydrogenation of quinoline, compared with PtNPs of 5.3 nm, allowing the reaction to proceed under ambient conditions with unprecedentedly high reaction rates. The size effect and the synthesis strategy developed herein may provide a general methodology in the design of metal-nanoparticle-based catalysts for a broad range of organic syntheses.</p>
  • Deng, Min, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analyses in Han Chinese identify two new susceptibility loci for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:6, s. 697-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To identify susceptibility genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 506 individuals with sporadic ALS and 1,859 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. Ninety top SNPs suggested by the current GWAS and 6 SNPs identified by previous GWAS were analyzed in an independent cohort of 706 individuals with ALS and 1,777 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. We discovered two new susceptibility loci for ALS at 1q32 (CAMK1G, rs6703183, P-combined = 2.92 x 10(-8), odds ratio (OR) = 1.31) and 22p11 (CABIN1 and SUSD2, rs8141797, P-combined = 2.35 x 10(-9), OR = 1.52). These two loci explain 12.48% of the overall variance in disease risk in the Han Chinese population. We found no association evidence for the previously reported loci in the Han Chinese population, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of disease susceptibility for ALS between ancestry groups. Our study identifies two new susceptibility loci and suggests new pathogenic mechanisms of ALS.</p>
  • Duan, Sai, et al. (författare)
  • A density functional theory approach to mushroom-like platinum clusters on palladium-shell over Au core nanoparticles for high electrocatalytic activity
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP. - Cambridge : ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY. - 1463-9076 .- 1463-9084. ; 13:12, s. 5441-5449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Recently, it was found that Pt clusters deposited on Pd shell over Au core nanoparticles (Au@Pd@Pt NPs) exhibit unusually high electrocatalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of formic acid (P. P. Fang, S. Duan, et al., Chem. Sci., 2011, 2, 531-539). In an attempt to offer an explanation, we used here carbon monoxide (CO) as probed molecules, and applied density functional theory (DFT) to simulate the surface Raman spectra of CO at this core-shell-cluster NPs with a two monolayer thickness of Pd shell and various Pt cluster coverage. Our DFT results show that the calculated Pt coverage dependent spectra fit the experimental ones well only if the Pt clusters adopt a mushroom-like structure, while currently the island-like structure is the widely accepted model, which follows the Volmer-Weber growth mode. This result infers that there should be a new growth mode, i.e., the mushroom growth mode as proposed in the present work, for Au@Pd@Pt NPs. We suggest that such a mushroom-like structure may offer novel active sites, which accounts for the observed high electrocatalytic activity of Au@Pd@Pt NPs.</p>
  • Duan, Sai, et al. (författare)
  • Structures of Water Molecules Adsorbed on a Gold Electrode under Negative Potentials
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. - 1932-7447 .- 1932-7455. ; 114:9, s. 4051-4056
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Two stable conformations of water hexamer Clusters on gold electrode under negative potentials have been identified by density functional theory calculations. Both form a ring Structure but with different orientations of free CH bonds. Ill one of the Structures, labeled as F-Type, four free OH bonds of the water molecules point toward the gold surface and remain stable over a wide range of the negative potential. The other Structure, labeled as S-Type, starts with five Such free OH bonds pointing toward the gold surface at the low negative potential and ends LIP with six of them at higher negative potential. From the energetic point of view, the S-Type Structure is more stable than the F-Type under the same Potential. By comparing the calculated Raman spectra with the experiment, it is found that S-Type Structures are the most possible surface adsorption state of water molecules at the electrochemical interface under very negative electrode potentials. It is believed that such a novel water Structure Could also exist Oil other negative charged Surfaces.</p>
  • Huang, Xin, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Privacy of Value-Added Context-Aware Service Cloud
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Lecture notes in computer science Volume 5931. - Springer. - 978-364210664-4 ; s. 547-552
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the cloud computing era, service provider cloud and context service cloud store all your personal context data. This is a positive aspect for value-added context-aware service cloud as it makes that context information collection are easier than was the case previously. However, this computing environment does add a series of threats in relation to privacy protection. Whoever receives the context information is able to deduce the status of the owners and, generally owners are not happy to share this information. In this paper, we propose a privacy preserved framework which can be utilized by value-added context-aware service cloud. Context data and related services access privileges are determined by context-aware role-based access control (CRAC) extended from role-based access control (RAC). Privacy preserved context service protocol (PPCS) is designed to protect user privacy from exposed context information. Additionally, user network and information diffusion is combined to evaluate the privacy protection effect.
  • Kerrebrouck, Joris Van, et al. (författare)
  • High-speed PAM4-based Optical SDM Interconnects with Directly Modulated Long-wavelength VCSEL
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Lightwave Technology. - 0733-8724 .- 1558-2213. ; 37:2, s. 356-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper reports the demonstration of high-speed PAM-4 transmission using a 1.5-μm single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser (SM-VCSEL) over multicore fiber with 7 cores over different distances. We have successfully generated up to 70 Gbaud 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signals with a VCSEL in optical back-to-back, and transmitted 50 Gbaud PAM-4 signals over both 1-km dispersion-uncompensated and 10-km dispersion-compensated in each core, enabling a total data throughput of 700 Gbps over the 7-core fiber. Moreover, 56 Gbaud PAM-4 over 1-km has also been shown, whereby unfortunately not all cores provide the required 3.8 × 10&lt;formula&gt;&lt;tex&gt;$^-3$&lt;/tex&gt;&lt;/formula&gt;bit error rate (BER) for the 7% overhead-hard decision forward error correction (7% OH HDFEC). The limited bandwidth of the VCSEL and the adverse chromatic dispersion of the fiber are suppressed with pre-equalization based on accurate end-to-end channel characterizations. With a digital post-equalization, BER performance below the 7% OH-HDFEC limit is achieved over all cores. The demonstrated results show a great potential to realize high-capacity and compact short-reach optical interconnects for data centers.</p>
  • Lin, Rui, et al. (författare)
  • Real-time 100 Gbps/lambda/core NRZ and EDB IM/DD Transmission over 10 km Multicore Fiber
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: 2018 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition, OFC 2018 - Proceedings. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). - 9781943580385
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A BiCMOS chip-based real-time IM/DD spatial division multiplexing system is experimentally demonstrated for short-reach communications. 100 Gbps/./core NRZ and EDB transmission is achieved below 7%-overhead HD-FEC limit after 10km 7-core fiber with optical dispersion compensation.</p>
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