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  • El-Schich, Zahra, et al. (författare)
  • Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Structural Biology. - : Elsevier. - 1047-8477 .- 1095-8657. ; 189:3, s. 207-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for one to three days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds.
  • Lozano, Rafael, et al. (författare)
  • Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; , s. 2091-2138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of “leaving no one behind”, it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health-related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990–2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment. Methods: We measured progress on 41 health-related SDG indicators from 1990 to 2017, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2016 (new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]). We also improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators. We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries. To construct the health-related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale of 0–100, with 0 as the 2·5th percentile and 100 as the 97·5th percentile of 1000 draws calculated from 1990 to 2030, and took the geometric mean of the scaled indicators by target. To generate projections through 2030, we used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2017 to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: first, using mean values projected for 2030, and then using the probability of attainment in 2030 calculated from 1000 draws. We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends. Using 2015 global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from 2015 to 2030 to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from 1990 to 2015. We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent 2030 global average value and percentage change from 2015 to 2030 for each indicator. Findings: The global median health-related SDG index in 2017 was 59·4 (IQR 35·4–67·3), ranging from a low of 11·6 (95% uncertainty interval 9·6–14·0) to a high of 84·9 (83·1–86·7). SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially, particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have a higher health-related SDG index in 2030 than in 2017, while country-level probabilities of attainment by 2030 varied widely by indicator. Under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria indicators had the most countries with at least 95% probability of target attainment. Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for 2030 but showed some probability of attainment by 2030. For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past. We found that applying the mean global annualised rate of change to indicators without defined targets would equate to about 19% and 22% reductions in global smoking and alcohol consumption, respectively; a 47% decline in adolescent birth rates; and a more than 85% increase in health worker density per 1000 population by 2030. Interpretation: The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health-related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health-related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence-related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains—curative interventions in the case of NCDs—towards multisectoral, prevention-oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims. Notably, several targets, if they are to be met by 2030, demand a pace of progress that no country has achieved in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the SDGs. What is clear is that our actions—or inaction—today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can get to leaving no one behind by 2030.
  • Mosallanezhad, Z., et al. (författare)
  • A structural equation model of the relation between socioeconomic status, physical activity level, independence and health status in older Iranian people
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. - 0167-4943 .- 1872-6976. ; 70, s. 123-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aim: Health status is an independent predictor of mortality, morbidity and functioning in older people. The present study was designed to evaluate the link between socioeconomic status (SES), physical activity (PA), independence (I) and the health status (HS) of older people in Iran, using structural equation modelling. Methods: Using computerized randomly selection, a representative sample of 851 75-year-olds living in Tehran (2007-2008), Iran, was included. Participants answered questions regarding indicators of HS, SES and also PA and I through interviews. Both measurement and conceptual models of our hypotheses were tested using Mplus 5. Maximum-likelihood estimation with robust standard errors (MLR estimator), chisquare tests, the goodness of fit index (and degrees of freedom), as well as the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RSMEA) were used to evaluate the model fit. Results: The measurement model yielded a reasonable fit to the data, chi(2) = 110.93, df = 38; CFI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.047, with 90% C.I. = 0.037-0.058. The model fit for the conceptual model was acceptable; chi(2) = 271.64, df = 39; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.084, with 90% C.I. = 0.074-0.093. SES itself was not a direct predictor of HS (beta = 0.13, p = 0.059) but it was a predictor of HS either through affecting PA (beta = 0.31, p < 0.001) or I (beta = 0.57, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Socioeconomic status appeared to influence health status, not directly but through mediating some behavioral and self-confidence aspects including physical activity and independence in ADL. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Rahmati, Omid, et al. (författare)
  • Development of novel hybridized models for urban flood susceptibility mapping
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Floods in urban environments often result in loss of life and destruction of property, with many negative socio-economic effects. However, the application of most flood prediction models still remains challenging due to data scarcity. This creates a need to develop novel hybridized models based on historical urban flood events, using, e.g., metaheuristic optimization algorithms and wavelet analysis. The hybridized models examined in this study (Wavelet-SVR-Bat and Wavelet-SVR-GWO), designed as intelligent systems, consist of a support vector regression (SVR), integrated with a combination of wavelet transform and metaheuristic optimization algorithms, including the grey wolf optimizer (GWO), and the bat optimizer (Bat). The efficiency of the novel hybridized and standalone SVR models for spatial modeling of urban flood inundation was evaluated using different cutoff-dependent and cutoff-independent evaluation criteria, including area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), Accuracy (A), Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC), Misclassification Rate (MR), and F-score. The results demonstrated that both hybridized models had very high performance (Wavelet-SVR-GWO: AUC = 0.981, A = 0.92, MCC = 0.86, MR = 0.07; Wavelet-SVR-Bat: AUC = 0.972, A = 0.88, MCC = 0.76, MR = 0.11) compared with the standalone SVR (AUC = 0.917, A = 0.85, MCC = 0.7, MR = 0.15). Therefore, these hybridized models are a promising, cost-effective method for spatial modeling of urban flood susceptibility and for providing in-depth insights to guide flood preparedness and emergency response services.
  • Sayyari, Ali-Akbar, et al. (författare)
  • Methodology of the Comprehensive Program on Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Children and Adolescents : The IRAN-Ending Childhood Obesity (IRAN-ECHO) Program
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Preventive Medicine. - 2008-7802 .- 2008-8213. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The World Health Organization program on Ending Childhood Obesity (WHO-ECHO) has developed a comprehensive and integrated package of recommendations to address childhood obesity. The present study, entitled IRAN-ECHO, was designed and implemented in the framework of the WHO-ECHO program.Methods: The IRAN-ECHO program is implementing multicomponent interventions by considering life course dimensions. The program has two parts: a population approach and an individual approach. The population approach considers different periods in life, including prenatal, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, as well as family and society. The individual approach targets those children or adolescents with overweight or obesity; this part is conducted as a referral system that is now integrated in the current national health system. As part of the population approach, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in six provinces to compare the status before and after implementing parts of the interventions. By intersectoral collaboration with different organizations, multicomponent interventions are conducted for different age groups.Results: The IRAN-ECHO program is being conducted in six provinces, and will be considered in all provinces in the near future. Its main effects could be assessed in future years. Part of this program that was conducted as a quasi-experimental survey comprised 7149 students and showed that a high percentage of students had acceptable knowledge about adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. However, the knowledge about the low nutritional value of unhealthy snacks such as potato chips, puffs, industrial juices, and carbonated drinks was not appropriate. Many participants had the undesirable attitude of skipping one of the main meals when attempting to lose weight.Conclusions: The IRAN-ECHO program is presenting the feasibility of conducting the WHO-ECHO recommendations in Iran. The scope of potential policy recommendations to decrease childhood obesity is extensive and includes various elements. This program considers multisectoral interventions through population and individual approaches. The multicomponent interventions of this program address the obesogenic environment by considering the life course dimensions. It is expected that, by its life course interventions, it could help in primordial and primary prevention of noncommunicable diseases.
  • Schweiker, Marcel, et al. (författare)
  • The Scales Project, a cross-national dataset on the interpretation of thermal perception scales
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific data. - 2052-4463. ; 6:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thermal discomfort is one of the main triggers for occupants' interactions with components of the built environment such as adjustments of thermostats and/or opening windows and strongly related to the energy use in buildings. Understanding causes for thermal (dis-)comfort is crucial for design and operation of any type of building. The assessment of human thermal perception through rating scales, for example in post-occupancy studies, has been applied for several decades; however, long-existing assumptions related to these rating scales had been questioned by several researchers. The aim of this study was to gain deeper knowledge on contextual influences on the interpretation of thermal perception scales and their verbal anchors by survey participants. A questionnaire was designed and consequently applied in 21 language versions. These surveys were conducted in 57 cities in 30 countries resulting in a dataset containing responses from 8225 participants. The database offers potential for further analysis in the areas of building design and operation, psycho-physical relationships between human perception and the built environment, and linguistic analyses.
  • Sturesson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Thermomechanical stability and integrability of an embedded ceramic antenna with an integrated sensor element for wireless reading in harsh environments
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics. - London : Institute of Physics (IOP).
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper reports on the design, manufacturing and evaluation of a small, wirelessly powered and read resonating antenna circuit with an integrated pressure sensor. The work aims at developing miniature devices suitable for harsh environments, where high temperature prevents the use of conventional, silicon-based microdevices. Here, the device is made of alumina with platinum as conducting material. Ceramic green tapes were structured using high-precision milling, metallized using screen printing, and subsequently laminated to form stacks before they were sintered. The device’s frequency shift as a function of temperature was studied up to 900°C. The contributions to the shift both from the thermomechanical deformation of the device at large, and from the integrated and, so far, self-pressurized sensor were sorted out. A total frequency shift of 3200 ppm was observed for the pressure sensor for heating over the whole range. Negligible levels of thermally induced radius of curvature were observed. With three-point bending, a frequency shift of 180 ppm was possible to induce with a curvature of radius of 220 m at a 10 N load. The results indicate that a robust pressure sensor node, which can register pressure changes of a few bars at 900°C and wirelessly transmit the signal, is viable.
  • Abbaspoor, Zahra, et al. (författare)
  • Translation and cultural adaptation of the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) in Iran
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research. - 1735-9066 .- 2228-5504. ; 24:4, s. 296-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. A standardized method to measure and quantify women's birth experiences is required to study satisfaction of childbirth care. Therefore, this study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) for use in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 203 women who attended 2 hospitals and 2 health centers and met the inclusion criteria in Ahvaz city, between February 2013 and June 2014. After forward and backward translation of the Swedish CEQ into Persian language, content validity was assessed by an expert panel. Scale reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) was assessed with respect to the psychometric properties of the scale. Results: Minor cultural differences were identified and resolved during the translation process. One item was excluded. The intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.63 to 0.90 was satisfactory. Conclusions: The Persian version of the CEQ appears to be valid and reliable; hence, it can be an effective tool in designing childbirth experience interventions and also childbirth care and education interventions for the promotion of positive childbirth experience in Iranian women.
  • Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba, et al. (författare)
  • Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 555, s. 497-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, performance is limited by non-radiative losses, with luminescence yields in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells still far from 100 per cent under standard solar illumination conditions. Furthermore, in mixed halide perovskite systems designed for continuous bandgap tunability2 (bandgaps of approximately 1.7 to 1.9 electronvolts), photoinduced ion segregation leads to bandgap instabilities. Here we demonstrate substantial mitigation of both non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration in perovskite films and interfaces by decorating the surfaces and grain boundaries with passivating potassium halide layers. We demonstrate external photoluminescence quantum yields of 66 per cent, which translate to internal yields that exceed 95 per cent. The high luminescence yields are achieved while maintaining high mobilities of more than 40 square centimetres per volt per second, providing the elusive combination of both high luminescence and excellent charge transport. When interfaced with electrodes in a solar cell device stack, the external luminescence yield—a quantity that must be maximized to obtain high efficiency—remains as high as 15 per cent, indicating very clean interfaces. We also demonstrate the inhibition of transient photoinduced ion-migration processes across a wide range of mixed halide perovskite bandgaps in materials that exhibit bandgap instabilities when unpassivated. We validate these results in fully operating solar cells. Our work represents an important advance in the construction of tunable metal halide perovskite films and interfaces that can approach the efficiency limits in tandem solar cells, coloured-light-emitting diodes and other optoelectronic applications.
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