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1.
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2.
  • Kristanl, Matej, et al. (författare)
  • The Seventh Visual Object Tracking VOT2019 Challenge Results
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: 2019 IEEE/CVF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION WORKSHOPS (ICCVW). - : IEEE COMPUTER SOC. - 9781728150239 ; , s. 2206-2241
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2019 is the seventh annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of 81 trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art trackers published at major computer vision conferences or in journals in the recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies for short-term tracking analysis as well as the standard VOT methodology for long-term tracking analysis. The VOT2019 challenge was composed of five challenges focusing on different tracking domains: (i) VOT-ST2019 challenge focused on short-term tracking in RGB, (ii) VOT-RT2019 challenge focused on "real-time" short-term tracking in RGB, (iii) VOT-LT2019 focused on long-term tracking namely coping with target disappearance and reappearance. Two new challenges have been introduced: (iv) VOT-RGBT2019 challenge focused on short-term tracking in RGB and thermal imagery and (v) VOT-RGBD2019 challenge focused on long-term tracking in RGB and depth imagery. The VOT-ST2019, VOT-RT2019 and VOT-LT2019 datasets were refreshed while new datasets were introduced for VOT-RGBT2019 and VOT-RGBD2019. The VOT toolkit has been updated to support both standard short-term, long-term tracking and tracking with multi-channel imagery. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website(1).
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3.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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4.
  • Yang, X. M., et al. (författare)
  • Overexpression of Rac GTPase Activating Protein 1 Contributes to Proliferation of Cancer Cells by Reducing Hippo Signaling to Promote Cytokinesis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : Elsevier. - 0016-5085. ; 155:4, s. 1233-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Agents designed to block or alter cytokinesis can kill or stop proliferation of cancer cells. We aimed to identify cytokinesis-related proteins that are overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and might be targeted to slow liver tumor growth. METHODS: Using the Oncomine database, we compared the gene expression patterns in 16 cancer microarray datasets and assessed gene enrichment sets using gene ontology. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of an HCC tissue microarray and identified changes in protein levels that are associated with patient survival times. Candidate genes were overexpressed or knocked down with small hairpin RNAs in SMMC7721, MHCC97H, or HCCLM3 cell lines; we analyzed their proliferation, viability, and clone-formation ability and their growth as subcutaneous or orthotopic xenograft tumors in mice. We performed microarray analyses to identify alterations in signaling pathways and immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays to detect and localize proteins in tissues. Yeast 2-hybrid screens and mass spectrometry combined with co-immunoprecipitation experiments were used to identify binding proteins. Protein interactions were validated with co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter luciferase activity, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to identify factors that regulate transcription of specific genes. RESULTS: The genes that were most frequently overexpressed in different types of cancer cells were involved in cell division processes. We identified 3 cytokinesis-regulatory proteins among the 10 genes most frequently overexpressed by all cancer cell types. Rac GTPase activating protein 1 (RACGAP1) was the cytokinesis-regulatory protein that was most highly overexpressed in multiple cancers. Increased expression of RACGAP1 in tumor tissues was associated with shorter survival times of patients with cancer. Knockdown of RACGAP1 in HCC cells induced cytokinesis failure and cell apoptosis. In microarray analyses, we found knockdown of RACGAP1 in SMMC7721 cells to reduce expression of genes regulated by yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW domain containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1 or TAZ). RACGAP1 reduced activation of the Hippo pathway in HCC cells by increasing activity of RhoA and polymerization of filamentous actin. Knockdown of YAP reduced phosphorylation of RACGAP1 and redistribution at the anaphase central spindle. We found transcription of the translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein (TPR) to be regulated by YAP and coordinately expressed with RACGAP1 to promote proliferation of HCC cells. TPR redistributed upon nuclear envelope breakdown and formed complexes with RACGAP1 during mitosis. Knockdown of TPR in HCC cells reduced phosphorylation of RACGAP1 by aurora kinase B and impaired their redistribution at the central spindle during cytokinesis. STAT3 activated transcription of RACGAP in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of gene expression patterns of multiple tumor types, we found RACGAP1 to be frequently overexpressed, which is associated with shorter survival times of patients. RACGAP1 promotes proliferation of HCC cells by reducing activation of the Hippo and YAP pathways and promoting cytokinesis in coordination with TPR.
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5.
  • Asano, Takaki, et al. (författare)
  • X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency in ~1% of men under 60 years old with life-threatening COVID-19.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Science immunology. - 2470-9468. ; 6:62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autosomal inborn errors of type I IFN immunity and autoantibodies against these cytokines underlie at least 10% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases. We report very rare, biochemically deleterious X-linked TLR7 variants in 16 unrelated male individuals aged 7 to 71 years (mean: 36.7 years) from a cohort of 1,202 male patients aged 0.5 to 99 years (mean: 52.9 years) with unexplained critical COVID-19 pneumonia. None of the 331 asymptomatically or mildly infected male individuals aged 1.3 to 102 years (mean: 38.7 years) tested carry such TLR7 variants (p = 3.5 × 10-5). The phenotypes of five hemizygous relatives of index cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 include asymptomatic or mild infection (n=2, 5 and 38 years), or moderate (n=1, 5 years), severe (n=1, 27 years), or critical (n=1, 29 years) pneumonia. Two boys (aged 7 and 12 years) from a cohort of 262 male patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (mean: 51.0 years) are hemizygous for a deleterious TLR7 variant. The cumulative allele frequency for deleterious TLR7 variants in the male general population is < 6.5x10-4 We also show that blood B cell lines and myeloid cell subsets from the patients do not respond to TLR7 stimulation, a phenotype rescued by wild-type TLR7 The patients' blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce low levels of type I IFNs in response to SARS-CoV-2. Overall, X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency is a highly penetrant genetic etiology of critical COVID-19 pneumonia, in about 1.8% of male patients below the age of 60 years. Human TLR7 and pDCs are essential for protective type I IFN immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract.
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6.
  • Meng, Wen-Jian, et al. (författare)
  • Expressions of miR-302a, miR-105, and miR-888 Play Critical Roles in Pathogenesis, Radiotherapy, and Prognosis on Rectal Cancer Patients : A Study From Rectal Cancer Patients in a Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial of Preoperative Radiotherapy to Big Database Analyses
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Oncology. - : Frontiers. - 2234-943X .- 2234-943X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Differential expressions and functions of various micoRNAs (miRNAs) have been intensively studied in both colon and rectal cancers. However, the importance of miRNAs on radiotherapy (RT) response and clinical outcome in rectal cancer patients remains unclear. In this study, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine the expressions of miR-302a, miR-105, and miR-888 in normal mucosa and cancer tissue from rectal cancer patients with and without preoperative RT. The biological function of miR-302a, miR-105, and miR-888 expression was further analyzed and identified through the public databases: TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) and GEPIA (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis). The results showed that the expression of miR-105 in rectal cancer was higher than that in normal mucosa in RT (P = 0.042) and non-RT patients (P = 0.003) and was associated with mucinous histological type (P = 0.004), COX-2 (P = 0.042), and p73 expression (P = 0.030). The expression of miR-302a was shown more frequently in cancers with necrosis (P = 0.033) and with WRAP53 expression (P = 0.015), whereas miR-888 expression occurred more frequently in tumors with protein the expression of survivin (P = 0.015), AEG-1 (astrocyte elevated gene-1) (P = 0.003), and SATB1 (special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1) (P = 0.036). Moreover, TargetScan also predicted AEG-1 and SATB1 as putative targets for miR-888. The miRNA-gene network analysis showed that ABI2 was associated with all the three miRNAs, with lower expression and good diagnostic value in rectal cancers. The TCGA database demonstrated the association of miR-105 expression with high carcinoembryonic antigen level (P = 0.048). RT reduced the expressions of miR-302a, miR-105, and miR-888. Prognostic analysis showed that miR-888 expression was independently associated with worse survival of patients without RT [overall survival, P = 0.001; disease-free survival, P = 0.009]. Analysis of biological function revealed that the protein serine/threonine kinase activity and PI3K-AKT signaling pathway were the most significantly enriched functions and pathways, respectively. Our findings suggest that miR-105 is involved in rectal cancer pathogenesis and miR-888 is associated with prognosis. MiR-302a, miR-105, and miR-888 have potential influence on the pathogenesis, RT, and prognosis of rectal cancer.
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7.
  • Kristan, Matej, et al. (författare)
  • The Sixth Visual Object Tracking VOT2018 Challenge Results
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Computer Vision – ECCV 2018 Workshops. - Cham : Springer Publishing Company. - 9783030110086 - 9783030110093 ; , s. 3-53
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2018 is the sixth annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of over eighty trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art trackers published at major computer vision conferences or in journals in the recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies for short-term tracking analysis and a “real-time” experiment simulating a situation where a tracker processes images as if provided by a continuously running sensor. A long-term tracking subchallenge has been introduced to the set of standard VOT sub-challenges. The new subchallenge focuses on long-term tracking properties, namely coping with target disappearance and reappearance. A new dataset has been compiled and a performance evaluation methodology that focuses on long-term tracking capabilities has been adopted. The VOT toolkit has been updated to support both standard short-term and the new long-term tracking subchallenges. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website (http://votchallenge.net).
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8.
  • Kristan, Matej, et al. (författare)
  • The Visual Object Tracking VOT2017 challenge results
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 2017 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION WORKSHOPS (ICCVW 2017). - : IEEE. - 9781538610343 ; , s. 1949-1972
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2017 is the fifth annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of 51 trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art published at major computer vision conferences or journals in recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies and a new "real-time" experiment simulating a situation where a tracker processes images as if provided by a continuously running sensor. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The VOT2017 goes beyond its predecessors by (i) improving the VOT public dataset and introducing a separate VOT2017 sequestered dataset, (ii) introducing a realtime tracking experiment and (iii) releasing a redesigned toolkit that supports complex experiments. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website(1).
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9.
  • Shi, Leming, et al. (författare)
  • The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-II study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1087-0156 .- 1546-1696. ; 28:8, s. 827-838
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, >30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis.
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10.
  • Botvinik-Nezer, Rotem, et al. (författare)
  • Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 582, s. 84-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses(1). The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset(2-5). Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed. The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.
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