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Sökning: WFRF:(Zhang Zixuan)

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1.
  • Zhong, T., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of solar photovoltaic potentials on urban noise barriers using street-view imagery
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Renewable energy. - : Elsevier Ltd. - 0960-1481 .- 1879-0682. ; 168, s. 181-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Solar energy captured by solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has great potential to meet the high demand for renewable energy sources in urban areas. A photovoltaic noise barrier (PVNB) system, which integrates a PV system with a noise barrier, is a promising source for harvesting solar energy to overcome the problem of having limited land available for solar panel installations. When estimating the solar PV potential at the city scale, it is difficult to identify sites for installing solar panels. A computational framework is proposed for estimating the solar PV potential of PVNB systems based on both existing and planned noise barrier sites. The proposed computational framework can identify suitable sites for installing photovoltaic panels. A deep learning-based method is used to detect existing noise barrier sites from massive street-view images. The planned noise barrier sites are identified with urban policies. Based on the existing and planned sites of noise barriers in Nanjing, the annual solar PV potentials in 2019 are 29,137 MW h and 113,052 MW h, respectively. The estimation results show that the potential PVNB systems based on the existing and planned noise barrier in 2019 have the potential installed capacity of 14.26 MW and 57.24 MW, with corresponding potential annual power generation of 4662 MW h and 18,088 MW h, respectively.
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2.
  • Bikdeli, Behnood, et al. (författare)
  • Individual Patient Data Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trials of Bivalirudin versus Heparin in Acute Myocardial Infarction : Rationale and Methodology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Schattauer GmbH. - 0340-6245. ; 120:2, s. 348-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of periprocedural anticoagulation with bivalirudin versus heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have reported conflicting results. Study-level meta-analyses lack granularity to adjust for confounders, explore heterogeneity, or identify subgroups that may particularly benefit or be harmed.Objective To overcome these limitations, we sought to develop an individual patient-data pooled database of RCTs comparing bivalirudin versus heparin.Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs in which ≥1,000 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing PCI were randomized to bivalirudin versus heparin.Results From 738 identified studies, 8 RCTs met the prespecified criteria. The principal investigators of each study agreed to provide patient-level data. The data were pooled and checked for accuracy against trial publications, with discrepancies addressed by consulting with the trialists. Consensus-based definitions were created to resolve differing antithrombotic, procedural, and outcome definitions. The project required 3.5 years to complete, and the final database includes 27,409 patients (13,346 randomized to bivalirudin and 14,063 randomized to heparin).Conclusion We have created a large individual patient database of bivalirudin versus heparin RCTs in patients with AMI undergoing PCI. This endeavor may help identify the optimal periprocedural anticoagulation regimen for patient groups with different relative risks of adverse ischemic versus bleeding events, including those with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation MI, radial versus femoral access, use of a prolonged bivalirudin infusion or glycoprotein inhibitors, and others. Adherence to standardized techniques and rigorous validation processes should increase confidence in the accuracy and robustness of the results..
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3.
  • Han, Zixuan, et al. (författare)
  • The changes in ENSO-induced tropical Pacific precipitation variability in the past warm and cold climates from the EC-Earth simulations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Climate Dynamics. - : Springer. - 0930-7575 .- 1432-0894. ; 55:3-4, s. 503-519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the most significant climate variability signals. Studying the changes in ENSO-induced precipitation variability (ENSO precipitation) in the past climate offers a possibility to a better understanding of how they may change under future climate conditions. This study uses simulations performed with the European community Earth-System Model (EC-Earth) to investigate the relative contributions of dynamic effect (the circulation anomalies together with the climatological specific humidity) and thermodynamic effect (the specific humidity anomalies together with the climatological circulation) on the changes in ENSO precipitation in the past warm and cold climates, represented by the Pliocene and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), respectively. The results show that the changes in ENSO precipitation are intensified (weakened) over the tropical western Pacific but weakened (intensified) over the tropical central Pacific in Pliocene (LGM) compared with the pre-industrial (PI) simulation. Based on the decomposed moisture budget equation, these changes in ENSO precipitation patterns are highly related to the dynamic effect. The mechanism can be understood as follows: the zonal gradient of the mean sea surface temperature (SST) over the tropical Indo-Pacific is increased (reduced) during the Pliocene (LGM), leading to the strengthening (weakening) of Pacific Walker Circulation as well as a westward (eastward) shift. In the Pliocene, the westward shift of Walker Circulation results in an increased (decreased) ENSO-induced low-level vertical velocity variability in the tropical western Pacific (central Pacific), and, in turn, favoring convergent (divergent) moisture transport through a dynamic process, and then causing intensified (weakened) ENSO precipitation there. The opposite mechanism exists in LGM. These results suggest that changes in the zonal SST gradient over tropical Indo-Pacific under different climate conditions determine the changes in ENSO precipitation through a dynamic process.
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4.
  • Zhang, Qiong, et al. (författare)
  • Simulating the mid-Holocene, last interglacial and mid-Pliocene climate with EC-Earth3-LR
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Geoscientific Model Development. - 1991-959X .- 1991-9603. ; 14:2, s. 1147-1169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As global warming is proceeding due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations, the Earth system moves towards climate states that challenge adaptation. Past Earth system states are offering possible modelling systems for the global warming of the coming decades. These include the climate of the mid-Pliocene (similar to 3 Ma), the last interglacial (similar to 129-116 ka) and the mid-Holocene (similar to 6 ka). The simulations for these past warm periods are the key experiments in the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) phase 4, contributing to phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Paleoclimate modelling has long been regarded as a robust out-of-sample test bed of the climate models used to project future climate changes. Here, we document the model setup for PMIP4 experiments with EC-Earth3-LR and present the large-scale features from the simulations for the mid-Holocene, the last interglacial and the mid-Pliocene. Using the pre-industrial climate as a reference state, we show global temperature changes, large-scale Hadley circulation and Walker circulation, polar warming, global monsoons and the climate variability modes - El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). EC-Earth3-LR simulates reasonable climate responses during past warm periods, as shown in the other PMIP4-CMIP6 model ensemble. The systematic comparison of these climate changes in past three warm periods in an individual model demonstrates the model's ability to capture the climate response under different climate forcings, providing potential implications for confidence in future projections with the EC-Earth model.
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5.
  • Chau, Katherine H, et al. (författare)
  • Stent Thrombosis Risk Over Time on the Basis of Clinical Presentation and Platelet Reactivity: Analysis From ADAPT-DES.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. - 1876-7605.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to determine the risk period for increased stent thrombosis (ST) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and whether this increased risk is related to high platelet reactivity (HPR).ST risk after PCI is higher among patients with ACS than those with stable ischemic heart disease. When ST risk is highest in patients with ACS and how that is affected by HPR is unknown.Using the ADAPT-DES (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents) registry, ST rates during 2-year follow-up post-PCI with drug-eluting stents were compared among patients presenting with ACS (myocardial infarction [MI] or unstable angina) or stable ischemic heart disease (non-ACS). Landmark analyses were done at 30 days and 1 year post-PCI. Platelet reactivity on aspirin and clopidogrel post-PCI was assessed using VerifyNow assays.Of 8,582 patients, 2,063 presented with MI, 2,370 with unstable angina, and 4,149 with non-ACS. Incidence rates of HPR were 48.0%, 43.3%, and 39.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Within the first 30 days post-PCI, patients presenting with MI had increased ST risk compared with patients with non-ACS (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01 to 10.14; p < 0.001). After 30 days, relative ST risks were progressively lower and no longer significant between groups (31 days to 1 year post-PCI: HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 0.80 to 4.85; >1 year post-PCI: HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.27 to 2.92). The elevated ST risk in patients with MI within 30 days was largely confined to those with HPR on clopidogrel (HR: 5.77; 95% CI: 2.13 to 15.63; p < 0.001).Among patients undergoing PCI, rates of ST during 2-year follow-up were highest in those with MI and lowest in those with non-ACS. Increased ST risk in patients with MI was greatest in the first 30 days post-PCI and was observed predominantly among those with increased HPR on clopidogrel. These findings emphasize the importance of adequate P2Y12 inhibition after MI, especially within the first 30 days after stent implantation.
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6.
  • Gao, Shigen, et al. (författare)
  • Fuzzy adaptive automatic train operation control with protection constraints : A residual nonlinearity approximation-based approach
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence. - : Elsevier BV. - 0952-1976 .- 1873-6769. ; 96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we present fuzzy adaptive control based on residual nonlinearity approximation in the presence of protection constraints for the target trajectory tracking problem observed in automatic train operation. Herein, protection constraints refer to a condition wherein the speed and position of a controlled train are not allowed to surpass the boundaries imposed by automatic train protection and moving authority. By defining proper coordinate transformation, the protection constraints are converted to an error-prescribed performance control problem that facilitates operational efficiency by reducing the margin with respect to target trajectories. Based on the prescribed performance control methodology, we present an improved scheme using fuzzy residual nonlinearity approximation and establish the uniformly ultimately boundedness (UUB) property. A novel feature therein is that the ultimate boundary of the proposed scheme is simultaneously characterized by the prescribed performance functions and control parameters, with rigorous and analytically mathematical expressions; while pioneering the prescribed performance control methodology, the ultimate boundary is characterized solely by the prescribed performance functions. To verify the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed scheme, the controllers are applied to the automatic train operation on the Beijing Yizhuang line, which contains 13 operational intervals. Finally, comparative and simulation results are presented to validate the proposed method.
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7.
  • Gertz, Zachary M, et al. (författare)
  • Implications of Atrial Fibrillation on the Mechanisms of Mitral Regurgitation and Response to MitraClip in the COAPT Trial.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. - 1941-7632.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation (AF), mitral regurgitation (MR), and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction have a complex interplay. We evaluated the role of AF in patients with heart failure and moderate-to-severe or severe secondary MR enrolled in the randomized COAPT trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation) and its impact on mechanisms and outcomes with the MitraClip.Patients in the COAPT trial were stratified by the presence (n=327) or absence (n=287) of a history of AF and by assignment to treatment group. Clinical, echocardiographic, and outcome measures were assessed. The primary outcome was the composite rate of death or heart failure hospitalization at 24 months.Patients with history of AF were older and more often male. They had a higher LV ejection fraction, larger left atrial volumes and mitral valve orifice areas, smaller LV volumes, and similar MR severity. Patients with AF compared with those without a history of AF had a higher unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.06-1.64], P=0.01) and adjusted (HR, 1.30 [1.03-1.64], P=0.03) 2-year rate of the primary outcome. Treatment with the MitraClip compared with guideline-directed medical therapy alone reduced death or heart failure hospitalization in both those with (HR, 0.61 [0.46-0.82]) and without (HR, 0.46 [0.33-0.66]) a history of AF (Pint=0.18). Treatment with the MitraClip was associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with a history of AF (HR, 0.18 [0.04-0.86]) but not in those without a history of AF (HR, 1.64 [0.58-4.62]; Pint=0.02).In the COAPT trial, patients with a history of AF had larger left atrial and mitral valve orifice areas with higher LV ejection fraction and smaller LV volumes, suggesting an atrial mechanism contribution to functional MR. Despite the worse prognosis of heart failure patients with a history of AF, MR reduction with the MitraClip still afforded substantial clinical benefits. Treatment with MitraClip was associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with a history of AF.URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01626079.
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8.
  • Han, Zixuan, et al. (författare)
  • Thermodynamic and dynamic effects of increased moisture sources over the Tropical Indian Ocean in recent decades
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Climate Dynamics. - 0930-7575 .- 1432-0894. ; 53:11, s. 7081-7096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present work, the mechanisms for the changes in moisture sources (evaporation minus precipitation; EmP) during boreal summer (May-September) are explored over the tropical Indian Ocean during 1979-2016. We apply a moisture budget analysis to quantify the thermodynamic and dynamic effects. Our results show that the EmP in the tropical central-eastern and southwestern Indian Oceans experienced significant increasing trends during boreal summer. The increased EmP in the tropical central-eastern Indian Ocean is due to the enhanced dynamic divergence (account for approximately 51%), while a stronger dynamic advection contributes more moisture supply to the southwestern Indian Ocean (account for approximately 34%). We find that during recent decades, the enhanced east-west thermal gradient in the Pacific strengthens the Walker Circulation, which leads to a westward shift in convection over the Indian Ocean warm pool, resulting in weakened convection and ascent over the tropical central-eastern Indian Ocean. The weakened convection leads to an anomalous low-level atmospheric divergent circulation, which intensifies the dynamic divergence contributing to the enhanced EmP over the tropical central-eastern Indian Ocean. Additionally, the warming climate during recent decades also increases the land-sea thermal contrast in the vicinity of the Indian Ocean, which enhances the southeastern wind in the low-level troposphere and leads to an enhanced EmP over the southwestern Indian Ocean.
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9.
  • Konigstein, Maayan, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Coronary Artery Tortuosity on Outcomes Following Stenting: A Pooled Analysis From 6 Trials.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. - 1876-7605.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors sought to determine whether coronary artery tortuosity negatively affects clinical outcomes after stent implantation.Coronary artery tortuosity is a common angiographic finding and has been associated with increased rates of early and late major adverse events after balloon angioplasty.Individual patient data from 6 prospective, randomized stent trials were pooled. Outcomes at 30 days and 5 years following percutaneous coronary intervention of a single coronary lesion were analyzed according to the presence or absence of moderate/severe vessel tortuosity, as determined by an angiographic core laboratory. The primary endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF; composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction [TV-MI], or ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization [ID-TVR]).A total of 6,951 patients were included, 729 of whom (10.5%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in vessels with moderate/severe tortuosity. At 30 days, TVF was more frequent in patients with versus without moderate/severe tortuosity (3.8% vs. 2.4%, hazard ratio: 1.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 2.46; p = 0.02), a difference driven by a higher rate of TV-MI. At 5 years, TVF remained increased in patients with moderate/severe tortuosity (p = 0.003), driven by higher rates of TV-MI (p = 0.003) and ID-TVR (p = 0.01). Definite stent thrombosis was also greater in patients with versus without moderate/severe tortuosity (1.9% vs. 1.0%, hazard ratio: 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.02 to 3.39; p = 0.04). After adjustment for baseline covariates, moderate/severe vessel tortuosity was independently associated with TV-MI and ID-TVR at 5 years (p = 0.04 for both).Stent implantation in vessels with moderate/severe coronary artery tortuosity is associated with increased rates of TVF due to greater rates of TV-MI and ID-TVR.
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10.
  • Kosmidou, Ioanna, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-Specific Outcomes of Transcatheter Mitral-Valve Repair and Medical Therapy for Mitral Regurgitation in Heart Failure.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JACC. Heart failure. - 2213-1787.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study sought to assess the sex-specific outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) with 3+ and 4+ secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) treated with transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone in the COAPT trial.The impact of sex in patients with HF and severe SMR treated with TMVr with the MitraClip compared with GDMT alone is unknown.Patients were randomized 1:1 to TMVr versus GDMT alone. Two-year outcomes were examined according to sex.Among 614 patients, 221 (36.0%) were women. Women were younger than men and had fewer comorbidities, but reduced quality of life and functional capacity at baseline. In a joint frailty model accounting for the competing risk of death, the 2-year cumulative incidence of the primary endpoint of all HF hospitalizations (HFH) was higher in men compared with women treated with GDMT alone. However, the relative reduction in HFHs with TMVr was greater in men (HR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.34-0.54) than women (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.57-1.05) (Pinteraction = 0.002). A significant interaction between TMVr versus GDMT alone treatment and time was present for all HFHs in women (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39-0.84, and HR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.83-2.33 between 0-1 year and 1-2 years after randomization, respectively, Pinteraction = 0.007) but not in men (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.36-0.64, and HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.21-0.51; Pinteraction = 0.16). Female sex was independently associated with a lower adjusted risk of death at 2 years (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46-0.90; P = 0.011). TMVr consistently reduced 2-year mortality compared with GDMT alone, irrespective of sex (Pinteraction = 0.99).In the COAPT trial, TMVr with the MitraClip resulted in improved clinical outcomes compared with GDMT alone, irrespective of sex. However, the impact of TMVr in reducing HFH was less pronounced in women compared with men beyond the first year after treatment. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation [The COAPT Tria] [COAPT]) NCT01626079.
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