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Sökning: WFRF:(Zimprich Fritz)

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1.
  • Reinthaler, Eva M, et al. (författare)
  • TPP2 mutation associated with sterile brain inflammation mimicking MS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: NEUROLOGY-GENETICS. - 2376-7839. ; 4:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To ascertain the genetic cause of a consanguineous family from Syria suffering from a sterile brain inflammation mimicking a mild nonprogressive form of MS.Methods We used homozygosity mapping and next-generation sequencing to detect the disease-causing gene in the affected siblings. In addition, we performed RNA and protein expression studies, enzymatic activity assays, immunohistochemistry, and targeted sequencing of further MS cases from Austria, Germany, Canada and Jordan.Results In this study, we describe the identification of a homozygous missense mutation (c.82T>G, p.Cys28Gly) in the tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) gene in all 3 affected siblings of the family. Sequencing of all TPP2-coding exons in 826 MS cases identified one further homozygous missense variant (c.2027C>T, p.Thr676Ile) in a Jordanian MS patient. TPP2 protein expression in whole blood was reduced in the affected siblings. In contrast, TPP2 protein expression in postmortem brain tissue from MS patients without TPP2 mutations was highly upregulated.Conclusions The homozygous TPP2 mutation (p.Cys28Gly) is likely responsible for the inflammation phenotype in this family. TPP2 is an ubiquitously expressed serine peptidase that removes tripeptides from the N-terminal end of longer peptides. TPP2 is involved in various biological processes including the destruction of major histocompatibility complex Class I epitopes. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in TPP2 were described in patients with Evans syndrome, a rare autoimmune disease affecting the hematopoietic system. Based on the gene expression results in our MS autopsy brain samples, we further suggest that TPP2 may play a broader role in the inflammatory process in MS.
2.
  • Altmann, Patrick, et al. (författare)
  • Increased serum neurofilament light chain concentration indicates poor outcome in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of neuroinflammation. - 1742-2094. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease that results in demyelination and axonal damage. Five percent of patients die and 20% remain significantly disabled on recovery. Recovery is slow in most cases and eventual disability is difficult to predict, especially early in the disease. Blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that could help identify patients at risk of poor outcome are required. We measured serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) concentrations from blood taken upon admission and investigated a correlation between sNfL and clinical outcome.Baseline sNfL levels in 27 GBS patients were compared with a control group of 22 patients with diagnoses not suggestive of any axonal damage. Clinical outcome parameters for GBS patients included (i) the Hughes Functional Score (HFS) at admission, nadir, and discharge; (ii) the number of days hospitalised; and (iii) whether intensive care was necessary.The median sNfL concentration in our GBS sample on admission was 85.5 pg/ml versus 9.1 pg/ml in controls. A twofold increase in sNfL concentration at baseline was associated with an HFS increase of 0.6 at nadir and reduced the likelihood of discharge with favourable outcome by a factor of almost three. Higher sNfL levels upon admission correlated well with hospitalisation time (rs = 0.69, p < 0.0001), during which transfer to intensive care occurred more frequently at an odds ratio of 2.4. Patients with baseline sNfL levels below 85.5 pg/ml had a 93% chance of being discharged with an unimpaired walking ability.sNfL levels measured at hospital admission correlated with clinical outcome in GBS patients. These results represent amounts of acute axonal damage and reflect mechanisms resulting in disability in GBS. Thus, sNfL may serve as a convenient blood-borne biomarker to personalise patient care by identifying those at higher risk of poor outcome.
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3.
  • Votinov, Mikhail, et al. (författare)
  • A Genetic Polymorphism of the Endogenous Opioid Dynorphin Modulates Monetary Reward Anticipation in the Corticostriatal Loop
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOP-R) system has been shown to play a role in different types of behavior regulation, including reward-related behavior and drug craving. It has been shown that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype) of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR) functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin (PDYN) gene are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype). We used fMRI on N = 71 prescreened healthy participants to investigate the effect of this polymorphism on cerebral activation in the limbic-corticostriatal loop during reward anticipation. Individuals with the HH genotype showed higher activation than those with the LL genotype in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) when anticipating a possible monetary reward. In addition, the HH genotype showed stronger functional coupling (as assessed by effective connectivity analyses) of mOFC with VMPFC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum during reward anticipation. This hints at a larger sensitivity for upcoming rewards in individuals with the HH genotype, resulting in a higher motivation to attain these rewards. These findings provide first evidence in humans that the PDYN polymorphism modulates neural processes associated with the anticipation of rewards, which ultimately may help to explain differences between genotypes with respect to addiction and drug abuse.
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4.
  • Huckins, Laura M., et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression imputation across multiple brain regions provides insights into schizophrenia risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 51:4, s. 659-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.
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5.
  • Ripke, Stephan, et al. (författare)
  • Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 511:7510, s. 421-427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.
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