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Sökning: WFRF:(da Silva Zacarias)

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1.
  • Norrgren, Hans R., et al. (författare)
  • Increased prevalence of HTLV-1 in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis coinfected with HIV, but not in HIV-negative patients with tuberculosis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. - Philadelphia, PA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1525-4135 .- 1944-7884. ; 48:5, s. 607-610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Few and inconclusive results have been presented regarding the influence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB). Methods: In 1994-1997, we performed a prospective study on hospitalized adult patients with pulmonary TB in Guinea-Bissau and compared the clinical outcome in HIV-2 and HIV-negative patients. We determined the prevalence of HTLV-1 in all patients screened and diagnosed with TB in that study and compared the infection rate with a serosurvey of HTLV-1 in a population sample from a community-based study conducted at the same time and in the same city. Results: In the TB group, a total of 32 (11.4%) of 280 patients were positive for HTLV-1. This was significantly higher compared with the population-based group in which 74 (3.5%) of 2117 were HTLV-1 positive [crude odds ratio (OR) = 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 5.6, P < 0.001]. However, in a logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, and HIV result, the difference was no longer significant (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 0.95 to 2.70, P = 0.074). In HIV-negative patients, no association was found between HTLV-1 and TB (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.48 to 2.89, P = 0.71), whereas a significant association was found in HIV-positive patients (OR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.26 to 4.61, P = 0.008). Conclusions: The immunosuppressive effect of HTLV-1 alone was not enough to increase the risk of TB in a highly endemic country, but HTLV-1 increased the risk of TB among HIV-infected individuals.
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2.
  • Esbjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term follow-up of HIV-2-related AIDS and mortality in Guinea-Bissau : a prospective open cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet HIV. - : The Lancet Publishing Group. - 2405-4704 .- 2352-3018. ; 6:1, s. E25-E31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: HIV type 2 (HIV-2) is considered more benign and has fewer pathogenic consequences than HIV type 1 (HIV-1) for most infected individuals. However, reliable estimates of time to AIDS and mortality among those with HIV-2 infection are absent. We therefore aimed to compare the time to AIDS and mortality, and the CD4 T-cell dynamics between those infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2.METHODS: We did a prospective open cohort study. We included all police officers with regular employment from police stations in both urban and rural areas of Guinea-Bissau since Feb 6, 1990. We continued to include participants until Sept 28, 2009, and follow-up of HIV-1-positive and HIV-2-positive individuals continued until Sept 28, 2013. We collected blood samples at enrolment and at scheduled annual follow-up visits at police stations. We analysed longitudinal data from individuals infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 according to time to AIDS, time to death, and T-cell dynamics. Time of HIV infection was estimated as the mid-timepoint between last HIV-seronegative and first HIV-seropositive sample. Data from an additional 2984 HIV-uninfected individuals from the same population were analysed to assess the effect of natural mortality on HIV-related mortality.FINDINGS: 872 participants tested HIV positive during the 23-year study period: 408 were infected with HIV-1 (183 infected before and 225 infected after enrolment) and 464 were infected with HIV-2 (377 before and 87 after enrolment). The median time from HIV infection to development of AIDS was 6·2 years (95% CI 5·4-7·1) for HIV-1 infection and 14·3 years (10·7-18·0) for HIV-2 infection (p<0·0001). The median survival time after HIV infection was 8·2 years (95% CI 7·5-8·9) for HIV-1 infection and 15·6 years (12·0-19·2) for HIV-2 infection (p<0·0001). Individuals who were infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2 before enrolment showed similar results. Comparison with uninfected individuals indicated limited confounding contribution from natural mortality. Mean CD4 percentages were higher in individuals with HIV-2 than in those with HIV-1 during early infection (28·0% [SE 1·3] vs 22·3% [1·7]; p=0·00094) and declined at a slower rate (0·4% [0·2] vs 0·9% [0·2] per year; p=0·028). HIV-2-infected individuals developed clinical AIDS at higher mean CD4 percentages (18·2%, IQR 7·2-25·4) than HIV-1-infected individuals (8·2%, 3·0-13·8; p<0·0001).INTERPRETATION: Our results show that both HIV-1-infected and HIV-2-infected individuals have a high probability of developing and dying from AIDS without antiretroviral treatment.
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4.
  • Esbjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Increased survival among HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual-infected individuals compared to HIV-1 single-infected individuals
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: AIDS. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1473-5571. ; 28:7, s. 949-957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To compare survival times of HIV-1 single and HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual-infected individuals. Design: Prospective open cohort study. Methods: We analysed data from 259 HIV-1-seroincident cases (either HIV-1 single or HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual-infected) from a cohort with long follow-up (similar to 20 years) in order to study the influence of type of infection and infection order on mortality. Sex and age at HIV-1 infection date was controlled for in a Cox proportional-hazards model. Results: Dual-infected individuals had a 42% longer time from HIV-1 infection to death compared with single-infected individuals, adjusting for age asymmetries between groups. Dual-infected individuals with an HIV-2 infection preceding the HIV-1 infection had a more than two-fold lower mortality risk during follow-up than HIV-1 single-infected individuals. Conclusion: Survival time is longer and the risk of progression to death is lower among HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual-infected individuals compared to HIV-1 single-infected individuals. This natural inhibition could have implications for the development of future HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutics.
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5.
  • Esbjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of HIV-1 disease progression by contemporaneous HIV-2 infection.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 367:3, s. 224-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Progressive immune dysfunction and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) develop in most persons with untreated infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but in only approximately 20 to 30% of persons infected with HIV type 2 (HIV-2); among persons infected with both types, the natural history of disease progression is poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed data from 223 participants who were infected with HIV-1 after enrollment (with either HIV-1 infection alone or HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection) in a cohort with a long follow-up duration (approximately 20 years), according to whether HIV-2 infection occurred first, the time to the development of AIDS (time to AIDS), CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, and measures of viral evolution. RESULTS: The median time to AIDS was 104 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 75 to 133) in participants with dual infection and 68 months (95% CI, 60 to 76) in participants infected with HIV-1 only (P=0.003). CD4+ T-cell levels were higher and CD8+ T-cell levels increased at a lower rate among participants with dual infection, reflecting slower disease progression. Participants with dual infection with HIV-2 infection preceding HIV-1 infection had the longest time to AIDS and highest levels of CD4+ T-cell counts. HIV-1 genetic diversity was significantly lower in participants with dual infections than in those with HIV-1 infection alone at similar time points after infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that HIV-1 disease progression is inhibited by concomitant HIV-2 infection and that dual infection is associated with slower disease progression. The slower rate of disease progression was most evident in participants with dual infection in whom HIV-2 infection preceded HIV-1 infection. These findings could have implications for the development of HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutics. (Funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency-Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries and others.).
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6.
  • Månsson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Trends of HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: possible effect of the civil war 1998-1999.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Sexually Transmitted Infections. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1368-4973. ; 83:6, s. 463-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Sentinel surveys in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau, have shown low prevalence of HIV-1 but high HIV-2 prevalence before 1998. Guinea-Bissau experienced a civil war in 1998-1999. To examine specifically the trends of HIV prevalence from antenatal surveys in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau in 1987-2004, and whether the civil war in 1998-1999 could have an effect on HIV prevalence levels after the conflict. Methods: Since 1987, anonymous HIV testing in delivering women has been performed at the maternity clinic, Simao Mendes National Hospital, Bissau, as part of the national sentinel surveillance programme. Consecutive sampling was performed for approximately 3 months between September and December each year. Serological analyses were performed at the National Public Health Laboratory in Guinea-Bissau. Results: A total of 20 422 women were tested for HIV between 1987 and 2004. The total HIV-1 prevalence increased from 0.0% in 1987 to 4.8% in 2004 and the total HIV-2 prevalence decreased from 8.3% in 1987 to 2.5% in 2004. The HIV-1 prevalence increased from 2.5% in 1997 to 5.2% in 1999, but stabilized in subsequent years. Conclusions: There was a significant increase in HIV-1 prevalence in the years 1987-2004 and a significant decline in HIV-2 prevalence over the same period. The civil war in 1998-1999 may have sparked HIV-1 transmission, as HIV-1 prevalence more than doubled between 1997 and 1999, but there is no evidence of a long-term effect on the trends of HIV-1 or HIV-2 prevalence.
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7.
  • Norrgren, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Higher mortality in HIV-2/HTLV-1 co-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, compared to HIV-2-positive HTLV-1-negative patients.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Elsevier. - 1878-3511. ; May 4, s. 142-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) on CD4 counts and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A prospective study on 280 hospitalized patients with pulmonary TB was performed in Guinea-Bissau, 1994-1997, including HIV, CD4 counts and clinical outcome. We compared the CD4 count levels at the time of inclusion between HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients, with or without HTLV-1. Mortality was determined while patients were on treatment for TB. RESULTS: Median CD4% was significantly higher in HIV-positive subjects co-infected with HTLV-1 compared to HTLV-1-negative patients. Two hundred thirty-three individuals were included in the analysis of mortality, and among HIV-negative subjects the mortality was 18.6/100 person-years . In HIV-2-positive HTLV-1-negative subjects the mortality was 39.5/100 person-years and in HIV-2/HTLV-1 co-infected patients it was 113.6/100 person-years (adjusted mortality rate ratio 4.7, 95% CI 1.5-14.4; p < 0.01). When all HIV-positive patients were analyzed together, corresponding mortality rates were 53.5/100 person-years and 104.8/100 person-years , respectively (not significant). CONCLUSIONS: HIV/HTLV-1 co-infected patients hospitalized for pulmonary TB had a high mortality and had significantly higher CD4% compared to only HIV-positive subjects. This may imply that HTLV-1 has an adverse effect on the immune system in HIV-infected subjects, independently of the CD4 count, that makes co-infected subjects more vulnerable to TB.
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8.
  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Microbial Translocation Correlates with the Severity of Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613. ; 201:8, s. 1150-1154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbial translocation has been linked to systemic immune activation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. Here, we show that an elevated level of microbial translocation, measured as plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration, correlates with AIDS in both individuals infected with HIV type 1 and individuals infected with HIV type 2. LPS concentration also correlates with CD4(+) T cell count and viral load independently of HIV type. Furthermore, elevated plasma LPS concentration was found to be concomitant with defective innate and mitogen responsiveness. We suggest that microbial translocation may contribute to loss of CD4(+) T cells, increase in viral load, and defective immune stimuli responsiveness during both HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 infections.
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9.
  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Reply to Redd et al
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613 .- 0022-1899. ; 203:5, s. 746-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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10.
  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Studies on toll-like receptor stimuli responsiveness in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cytokine. - : Academic Press. - 1096-0023. ; 46:3, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: HIV-1 and HIV-2 are two related viruses with distinct clinical outcomes, where HIV-1 is more pathogenic and transmissible than HIV-2. The pathogenesis of both infections is influenced by the dysregulation and deterioration of the adaptive immune system. However, their effects on the responsiveness of innate immunity are less well known. Here, we report on toll-like receptor (TLR) stimuli responsiveness in HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections. Methods: Whole blood from 235 individuals living in Guinea-Bissau who were uninfected, infected with HIV-1, infected with HIV-2, and/or infected with HTLV-1, was stimulated with TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists, R-848 and unmethylated CpG DNA. After TLR7/8 and TLR9 stimuli, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-alpha were related to gender, age, infection status, CD4(+) T cell counts. and plasma viral load. Results: Defective TLR9 responsiveness was observed in the advanced disease stage, along with CD4(+) T cell loss in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Moreover, TLR7/8 responsiveness was reduced in HIV-1 infected individuals compared with uninfected controls. Conclusions: Innate immunity responsiveness can be monitored by whole blood stimulation. Both advanced HIVA and HIV-2 infections may cause innate immunity dysregulation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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