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Sökning: WFRF:(de Borst Gert J.)

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1.
  • Justice, Anne E, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.
2.
  • Marouli, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 542:7640, s. 186-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
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3.
  • Harrison, Seamus C., et al. (författare)
  • A gene-centric study of common carotid artery remodelling
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 226:2, s. 440-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Expansive remodelling is the process of compensatory arterial enlargement in response to atherosclerotic stimuli. The genetic determinants of this process are poorly characterized. Methods: Genetic association analyses of inter-adventitial common carotid artery diameter (ICCAD) in the IMPROVE study (n = 3427) using the Illumina 200k Metabochip was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met array-wide significance were taken forward for analysis in three further studies (n = 5704), and tested for association with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). Results: rs3768445 on Chromosome 1q24.3, in a cluster of protein coding genes (DNM3, PIGC, C1orf105) was associated with larger ICCAD in the IMPROVE study. For each copy of the rare allele carried, ICCAD was on average 0.13 mm greater (95% CI 0.08-0.18 mm, P = 8.2 x 10(-8)). A proxy SNP (rs4916251, R-2 = 0.99) did not, however, show association with ICCAD in three follow-up studies (P for replication = 0.29). There was evidence of interaction between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and rs4916251 on ICCAD in two of the cohorts studies suggesting that it plays a role in the remodelling response to atherosclerosis. In meta-analysis of 5 case-control studies pooling data from 5007 cases and 43,630 controls, rs4916251 was associated with presence of AAA 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.17, p = 2.8 x 10(-3), I-2 = 18.8, Q = 0.30). A proxy SNP, rs4916251 was also associated with increased expression of PIGC in aortic tissue, suggesting that this may the mechanism by which this locus affects vascular remodelling. Conclusions: Common variation at 1q24.3 is associated with expansive vascular remodelling and risk of AAA. These findings support a hypothesis that pathways involved in systemic vascular remodelling play a role in AAA development.
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4.
  • Meeuwsen, John A.L., et al. (författare)
  • High levels of (un)switched memory B cells are associated with better outcome in patients with advanced atherosclerotic disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 2047-9980. ; 6:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background--Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory lipid disorder and the main underlying pathology of acute ischemic events. Despite a vast amount of data from murine atherosclerosis models, evidence of B-cell involvement in human atherosclerotic disease is limited. We therefore investigated the association of circulating B-cell subtypes with the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events in advanced atherosclerotic disease. Methods and Results--This cohort study consists of 168 patients who were included in the Athero-Express biobank between 2009 and 2011. Before surgery, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stored in liquid nitrogen. After gentle thawing of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, different B-cell subtypes including naïve, (un)switched memory, and CD27+CD43+ B1-like B cells, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between B-cell subtypes, circulating antibodies and secondary cardiovascular manifestations during the 3-year follow-up period. Mean age was 70.1±9.6 years, males represented 62.8% of the population, and 54 patients had secondary manifestations during follow-up. High numbers of unswitched memory cells were protective against secondary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.13-0.69]; P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained for the switched memory cells that also showed to be protective against secondary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.14-0.77]; P = 0.01). Conclusions--A high number of (un)switched memory B cells is associated with better outcome following carotid artery endarterectomy. These findings suggest a potential role for B-cell subsets in prediction and prevention of secondary cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerosis.
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6.
  • Gohar, Aisha, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating GDF-15 levels predict future secondary manifestations of cardiovascular disease explicitly in women but not men with atherosclerosis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - Elsevier. - 0167-5273. ; 241, s. 430-436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Elevated serum levels of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), is an established risk factor for a range of cardiovascular diseases.We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of plasma GDF-15 as a biomarker for secondary cardiovascular events (CVE) in patients with atherosclerosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Secondly, we determined whether plasma GDF-15 was associated with carotid plaque characteristics. Methods: Circulating GDF-15 levels were determined by Luminex assay in a cohort of 1056 patients from the Athero-Express biobank. Composite endpoint was defined as major CVE, death and peripheral vascular interventions. Findings were validated in 473 patients from the independent Carotid Plaque Imaging Project biobank. Results: GDF-15 levels did not associate with secondary CVE in the total cohort. However, following a significant interaction with sex, it was found to be strongly, independently predictive of secondary CVE in women but not men (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: HR 3.04 [95% CI 1.35-6.86], p = 0.007 in women vs. HR 0.96 [95% CI 0.66-1.40], p = 0.845 in men). This was also observed in the validation cohort (women: HR 2.28 [95% CI 1.04-5.05], p = 0.041), albeit dependent upon renal function. In addition, GDF-15 was associated with the presence of plaque smooth muscle cells and calcification. Conclusion: High circulating GDF-15 levels are predictive of secondary CVE in women but not in men with carotid atherosclerotic disease undergoing CEA, suggesting a potential use for GDF-15 as a biomarker for secondary prevention in women. Sex differences in the role of GDF-15 in atherosclerotic disease deserve further interest.
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