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Sökning: WFRF:(de Carvalho Mamede)

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1.
  • van Rheenen, Wouter, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analyses identify new risk variants and the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:9, s. 1043-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To elucidate the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and find associated loci, we assembled a custom imputation reference panel from whole-genome-sequenced patients with ALS and matched controls (n = 1,861). Through imputation and mixed-model association analysis in 12,577 cases and 23,475 controls, combined with 2,579 cases and 2,767 controls in an independent replication cohort, we fine-mapped a new risk locus on chromosome 21 and identified C21orf2 as a gene associated with ALS risk. In addition, we identified MOBP and SCFD1 as new associated risk loci. We established evidence of ALS being a complex genetic trait with a polygenic architecture. Furthermore, we estimated the SNP-based heritability at 8.5%, with a distinct and important role for low-frequency variants (frequency 1-10%). This study motivates the interrogation of larger samples with full genome coverage to identify rare causal variants that underpin ALS risk.
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2.
  • Al-Chalabi, Ammar, et al. (författare)
  • July 2017 ENCALS statement on edaravone
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2167-8421 .- 2167-9223. ; 18:7-8, s. 471-474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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3.
  • Freischmidt, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Haploinsufficiency of TBK1 causes familial ALS and fronto-temporal dementia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 18:5, s. 631-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative syndrome hallmarked by adult-onset loss of motor neurons. We performed exome sequencing of 252 familial ALS (fALS) and 827 control individuals. Gene-based rare variant analysis identified an exome-wide significant enrichment of eight loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in TBK1 (encoding TANK-binding kinase 1) in 13 fALS pedigrees. No enrichment of LoF mutations was observed in a targeted mutation screen of 1,010 sporadic ALS and 650 additional control individuals. Linkage analysis in four families gave an aggregate LOD score of 4.6. In vitro experiments confirmed the loss of expression of TBK1 LoF mutant alleles, or loss of interaction of the C-terminal TBK1 coiled-coil domain (CCD2) mutants with the TBK1 adaptor protein optineurin, which has been shown to be involved in ALS pathogenesis. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of TBK1 causes ALS and fronto-temporal dementia.
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4.
  • Ingre, Caroline, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • No association between VAPB mutations and familial or sporadic ALS in Sweden, Portugal and Iceland
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - : Informa Healthcare. - 2167-8421 .- 2167-9223. ; 14:7-8, s. 620-627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Linkage analysis in Brazilian families with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed that a missense mutation p.Pro56Ser in a conserved gene VAMP-associated protein type B and C (VAPB) co-segregates with disease.Methods: Blood samples were studied from 973 Swedish, 126 Portuguese and 19 Icelandic ALS patients, and from 644 control subjects. 
Results: We identified five VAPB mutations, two of which are novel, in 14 Swedish ALS patients and in nine control individuals from Sweden and Portugal. The 14 patients with VAPB mutations all carried a diagnosis of sporadic ALS. Mutations were also found in healthy adult relatives. The p.Asp130Glu VAPB mutation was also found in two patients from an Icelandic ALS family, but the mutation did not co-segregate with disease. All patients were instead found to be heterozygous for a p.Gly93Ser SOD1 mutation. There were no clinical differences between them, suggesting that the p.Asp130Glu VAPB mutation is unrelated to the disease process. 
Conclusions: The VAPB mutations were as frequent in control individuals as in patients. This observation, in combination with the finding of several healthy relatives carrying the VAPB mutations and no ancestors with ALS disease, suggests that it is unlikely that these VAPB mutations are pathogenic
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5.
  • Lee, Teresa, et al. (författare)
  • Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions in European ALS patients
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 20:9, s. 1697-1700
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting motor neurons. We recently identified intermediate-length polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions (27-33 Qs) in ataxin 2 as a genetic risk factor for sporadic ALS in North American ALS patients. To extend these findings, we assessed the ataxin 2 polyQ repeat length in 1294 European ALS patients and 679 matched healthy controls. We observed a significant association between polyQ expansions and ALS (>30 Qs; P= 6.2 × 10(-3)). Thus, intermediate-length ataxin 2 polyQ repeat expansions are associated with increased risk for ALS also in the European cohort. The specific polyQ length cutoff, however, appears to vary between different populations, with longer repeat lengths showing a clear association. Our findings support the hypothesis that ataxin 2 plays an important role in predisposing to ALS and that polyQ expansions in ataxin 2 are a significant risk factor for the disease.
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6.
  • Nicolas, Aude, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide Analyses Identify KIF5A as a Novel ALS Gene
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuron. - : Cell Press. - 0896-6273 .- 1097-4199. ; 97:6, s. 1268-1283.e6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify novel genes associated with ALS, we undertook two lines of investigation. We carried out a genome-wide association study comparing 20,806 ALS cases and 59,804 controls. Independently, we performed a rare variant burden analysis comparing 1,138 index familial ALS cases and 19,494 controls. Through both approaches, we identified kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) as a novel gene associated with ALS. Interestingly, mutations predominantly in the N-terminal motor domain of KIF5A are causative for two neurodegenerative diseases: hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2). In contrast, ALS-associated mutations are primarily located at the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain and patients harboring loss-of-function mutations displayed an extended survival relative to typical ALS cases. Taken together, these results broaden the phenotype spectrum resulting from mutations in KIF5A and strengthen the role of cytoskeletal defects in the pathogenesis of ALS.
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7.
  • Akimoto, Chizuru, et al. (författare)
  • A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:6, s. 419-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. Methods The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Results Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9-100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5-100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Conclusions Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting.
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8.
  • Alix, James J. P., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of the reliability of the motor unit size index (MUSIX) in single subject "round-robin" and multi-centre settings
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Neurophysiology. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 1388-2457 .- 1872-8952. ; 130:5, s. 666-674
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The motor unit size index (MUSIX) is incorporated into the motor unit number index (MUNIX). Our objective was to assess the intra-/inter-rater reliability of MUSIX in healthy volunteers across single subject "round robin" and multi-centre settings.Methods: Data were obtained from (i) a round-robin assessment in which 12 raters (6 with prior experience and 6 without) assessed six muscles (abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, biceps brachii, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis) and (ii) a multi-centre study with 6 centres studying the same muscles in 66 healthy volunteers. Intrafinter-rater data were provided by 5 centres, 1 centre provided only intra-rater data. Intrafinter-rater variability was assessed using the coefficient of variation (COV), Bland-Altman plots, bias and 95% limits of agreement.Results: In the round-robin assessment intra-rater COVs for MUSIX ranged from 7.8% to 28.4%. Inter-rater variability was between 7.8% and 16.2%. Prior experience did not impact on MUSIX values. In the multi-centre study MUSIX was more consistent than the MUNIX. Abductor hallucis was the least reliable muscle.Conclusions: The MUSIX is a reliable neurophysiological biomarker of reinnervation.Significance: MUSIX could provide insights into the pathophysiology of a range of neuromuscular disorders, providing a quantitative biomarker of reinnervation.
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9.
  • Andersen, Peter M., et al. (författare)
  • EFNS guidelines on the clinical management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MALS) : revised report of an EFNS task force
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 19:3, s. 360-E24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The evidence base for the diagnosis and management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is weak. Objectives: To provide evidence-based or expert recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ALS based on a literature search and the consensus of an expert panel. Methods: All available medical reference systems were searched, and original papers, meta-analyses, review papers, book chapters and guidelines recommendations were reviewed. The final literature search was performed in February 2011. Recommendations were reached by consensus. Recommendations: Patients with symptoms suggestive of ALS should be assessed as soon as possible by an experienced neurologist. Early diagnosis should be pursued, and investigations, including neurophysiology, performed with a high priority. The patient should be informed of the diagnosis by a consultant with a good knowledge of the patient and the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient and relatives/carers should receive regular support from a multidisciplinary care team. Medication with riluzole should be initiated as early as possible. Control of symptoms such as sialorrhoea, thick mucus, emotional lability, cramps, spasticity and pain should be attempted. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding improves nutrition and quality of life, and gastrostomy tubes should be placed before respiratory insufficiency develops. Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation also improves survival and quality of life. Maintaining the patient's ability to communicate is essential. During the entire course of the disease, every effort should be made to maintain patient autonomy. Advance directives for palliative end-of-life care should be discussed early with the patient and carers, respecting the patient's social and cultural background.
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10.
  • Brenner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 141, s. 688-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 x 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p. Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 x 10-7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.
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