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Sökning: WFRF:(de la Chapelle Albert)

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  • Raval, Aparna, et al. (författare)
  • Downregulation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cell. - 0092-8674 .- 1097-4172. ; 129:5, s. 879-890
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The heritability of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is relatively high; however, no predisposing mutation has been convincingly identified. We show that loss or reduced expression of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) underlies cases of heritable predisposition to CLL and the majority of sporadic CLL. Epigenetic silencing of DAPK1 by promoter methylation occurs in almost all sporadic CLL cases. Furthermore, we defined a disease haplotype, which segregates with the CLL phenotype in a large family. DAPK1 expression of the CLL allele is downregulated by 75% in germline cells due to increased HOXB7 binding. In the blood cells from affected family members, promoter methylation results in additional loss of DAPK1 expression. Thus, reduced expression of DAPK1 can result from germline predisposition, as well as epigenetic or somatic events causing or contributing to the CLL phenotype.
  • Archambault, Alexi N., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 158:5, s. 1274-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 x 10(-5)). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
  • Bull, Caroline J., et al. (författare)
  • Adiposity, metabolites, and colorectal cancer risk : Mendelian randomization study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - : BMC. - 1741-7015 .- 1741-7015. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. Methods We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. Results In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m(2)) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m(2)) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P <= 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. Conclusions Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.
  • Huyghe, Jeroen R., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:1, s. 76-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 x 10(-8), bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to similar to 100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Kruppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.
  • Murphy, Neil, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Associate With Risk of Colorectal Cancer Based on Serologic and Mendelian Randomization Analyses
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 158:5, s. 1300-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. METHODS: Serum levels of IGF1 were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow-up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genomewide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariableadjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.051.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.12; P = 3.3 x 10(-4)). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI 1.06-1.18; P = 4.2 x 10(-5)). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in the IGFBP3 gene region (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.
  • Thomas, Minta, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide Modeling of Polygenic Risk Score in Colorectal Cancer Risk
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cambridge : Cell Press. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 107:3, s. 432-444
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.
  • Bao, Erik L, et al. (författare)
  • Inherited myeloproliferative neoplasm risk affects haematopoietic stem cells
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 586:7831, s. 769-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the highest known for cancers1. However, only a limited number of genetic risk loci have been identified, and the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the acquisition of MPNs remain unclear. Here, by conducting a large-scale genome-wide association study (3,797 cases and 1,152,977 controls), we identify 17 MPN risk loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 7 of which have not been previously reported. We find that there is a shared genetic architecture between MPN risk and several haematopoietic traits from distinct lineages; that there is an enrichment for MPN risk variants within accessible chromatin of HSCs; and that increased MPN risk is associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes and other clonal haematopoietic states-collectively suggesting that MPN risk is associated with the function and self-renewal of HSCs. We use gene mapping to identify modulators of HSC biology linked to MPN risk, and show through targeted variant-to-function assays that CHEK2 and GFI1B have roles in altering the function of HSCs to confer disease risk. Overall, our results reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism for inherited MPN risk through the modulation of HSC function.
  • Guo, Xingyi, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying Novel Susceptibility Genes for Colorectal Cancer Risk From a Transcriptome-Wide Association Study of 125,478 Subjects
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background And Aims: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes.Methods: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted.Results: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10–6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P <.01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis.Conclusions: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.
  • TRUONG, Therese, et al. (författare)
  • Multiethnic genome-wide association study of differentiated thyroid cancer in the EPITHYR consortium
  • Ingår i: MedRxiv. - : medRxiv.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) varies considerably between ethnic groups, with particularly high incidence rates in Pacific Islanders. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 1,554 cases/1,973 controls of European ancestry and 301 cases/348 controls of Oceanian ancestry from the EPITHYR consortium. Our results confirmed the association with the known DTC susceptibility loci at 2q35, 8p12, 9q22.33 and 14q13.3 in the European ancestry population and suggested two novel signals at 1p31.3 (rs334729) and 16q23.2 (rs16950982), which were associated with TSH levels in previous GWAS. We additionally replicated an association with 5p15.33 reported previously in Chinese and European populations. Except at 1p31.3, all associations were in the same direction in the population of Oceanian ancestry. The frequency of risk alleles at 2q35, 5p15.33 and 16q23.2 were significantly higher in Oceanians than in Europeans and may explain part of the highest DTC incidence observed in Oceanians.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementINCA (grant number 9533) and ARC (grant number PGA120150202302), Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR), the Direction Generale de la Sante, the Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire de l alimentation, de lenvironnement et du travail (ANSES), CHILDTHYR EEC program, and the Fondation de France. JG and CX were the recipient of a PhD fellowship from Region Ile-de-France.Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:All participants provided informed consent and each study was approved by their governing ethics committee.All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesThe data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy or ethical restrictions.
  • Pasche, Boris, et al. (författare)
  • Somatic acquisition and signaling of TGFBR1*6A in cancer
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 294:13, s. 1634-1646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: TGFBR1*6A is a common polymorphism of the type I transforming growth factor 0 receptor (TGFBR1). Epidemiological studies suggest that TGFBR1*6A may act as a tumor susceptibility allele. How TGFBR1*6A contributes to cancer development is largely unknown.. Objectives: To determine whether TGFBR1*6A is somatically acquired by primary tumors and metastases during cancer development and whether the 3-amino acid deletion that differentiates TGFBR1*6A from TGFBR1 is part of the mature receptor or part of the signal sequence and to investigate TGFBR1*6A signaling in cancer cells. Design, Setting, and Patients: Tumor And germline tissues from 531 patients with a diagnosis of head and neck, colorectal, or breast cancer recruited from 3 centers in the United States and from 1 center in Spain from June 1, 1994, through June 30, 2004, In vitro translation assays, MCF-7 breast cancer cells stably transfected with TGFBR1*6A, TGFBR1, or the vector alone, DLD-1 colorectal cancer cells that endogenously carry TGFBR1*6A, and SW48 colorectal cancer cells that do not carry TGFBR1*6A. Main Outcome Measures: TGFBR1*6A somatic acquisition in cancer. Determination of the amino terminus of the mature TGFBR1*6A and TGFBR1 receptors. Determination of TGF-beta-dependent cell proliferation. Results: TGFBR1*6A was somatically acquired in 13 of 44 (29.5%) colorectal cancer metastases, in 4 of 157 (2.5%) of colorectal tumors, in 4 of 226 (1.8%) head and neck primary tumors, and in none of the 104 patients with breast cancer. TGFBR1*6A somatic acquisition is not associated with loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability, or a mutator phenotype. The signal sequences of TGFBR1 and TGFBR1*6A are cleaved at the same site resulting in identical mature receptors. TGFBR1*6A may switch TGF-beta growth inhibitory signals into growth stimulatory signals in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and in DLD-1 colorectal cancer cells. Conclusions: TGFBR1*6A is somatically acquired in 29.5% of liver metastases from colorectal cancer and may bestow cancer cells with a growth advantage in the presence of TGF-beta. The functional consequences of this conversion appear to be mediated by the TGFBR1*6A signal sequence rather than by the mature receptor. The results highlight a new facet of TGF-beta signaling in cancer and suggest that TGFBR1*6A may represent a potential therapeutic target in cancer.
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