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Sökning: WFRF:(den Ruijter Hester M)

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1.
  • Justice, Anne E, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.
2.
  • Locke, Adam E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 197-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10−8), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ~2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
3.
  • Wood, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:11, s. 1173-1186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
4.
  • Bots, Michiel L., et al. (författare)
  • Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Measurements Do Not Improve Cardiovascular Risk Prediction in Individuals With Elevated Blood Pressure The USE-IMT Collaboration
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1524-4563. ; 63:6, s. 1173-1181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a marker of cardiovascular risk. It is unclear whether measurement of mean common CIMT improves 10-year risk prediction of first-time myocardial infarction or stroke in individuals with elevated blood pressure. We performed an analysis among individuals with elevated blood pressure (ie, a systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg) in USE-IMT, a large ongoing individual participant data meta-analysis. We refitted the risk factors of the Framingham Risk Score on asymptomatic individuals (baseline model) and expanded this model with mean common CIMT (CIMT model) measurements. From both models, 10-year risks to develop a myocardial infarction or stroke were estimated. In individuals with elevated blood pressure, we compared discrimination and calibration of the 2 models and calculated the net reclassification improvement (NRI). We included 17 254 individuals with elevated blood pressure from 16 studies. During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 2014 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. The C-statistics of the baseline and CIMT models were similar (0.73). NRI with the addition of mean common CIMT was small and not significant (1.4%; 95% confidence intervals, -1.1 to 3.7). In those at intermediate risk (n=5008, 10-year absolute risk of 10% to 20%), the NRI was 5.6% (95% confidence intervals, 1.6-10.4). There is no added value of measurement of mean common CIMT in individuals with elevated blood pressure for improving cardiovascular risk prediction. For those at intermediate risk, the addition of mean common CIMT to an existing cardiovascular risk score is small but statistically significant.
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5.
  • Eikendal, Anouk L M, et al. (författare)
  • Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Relates to Cardiovascular Events in Adults Aged
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1524-4563. ; 65:4, s. 707-707
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavor-able risk factor burden.
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6.
  • Gijsberts, Crystel M, et al. (författare)
  • Race/Ethnic Differences in the Associations of the Framingham Risk Factors with Carotid IMT and Cardiovascular Events.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.
7.
  • Den Ruijter, Hester M., et al. (författare)
  • Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Measurements in Cardiovascular Risk Prediction A Meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. - American Medical Association. - 1538-3598. ; 308:8, s. 796-803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context The evidence that measurement of the common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) improves the risk scores in prediction of the absolute risk of cardiovascular events is inconsistent. Objective To determine whether common CIMT has added value in 10-year risk prediction of first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes, above that of the Framingham Risk Score. Data Sources Relevant studies were identified through literature searches of databases (PubMed from 1950 to June 2012 and EMBASE from 1980 to June 2012) and expert opinion. Study Selection Studies were included if participants were drawn from the general population, common CIMT was measured at baseline, and individuals were followed up for first-time myocardial infarction or stroke. Data Extraction Individual data were combined into 1 data set and an individual participant data meta-analysis was performed on individuals without existing cardiovascular disease. Results We included 14 population-based cohorts contributing data for 45 828 individuals. During a median follow-up of 11 years, 4007 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. We first refitted the risk factors of the Framingham Risk Score and then extended the model with common CIMT measurements to estimate the absolute 10-year risks to develop a first-time myocardial infarction or stroke in both models. The C statistic of both models was similar (0.757; 95% CI, 0.749-0.764; and 0.759; 95% CI, 0.752-0.766). The net reclassification improvement with the addition of common CIMT was small (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.1%-1.6%). In those at intermediate risk, the net reclassification improvement was 3.6% in all individuals (95% CI, 2.7%-4.6%) and no differences between men and women. Conclusion The addition of common CIMT measurements to the Framingham Risk Score was associated with small improvement in 10-year risk prediction of first-time myocardial infarction or stroke, but this improvement is unlikely to be of clinical importance. JAMA. 2012;308(8):796-803 www.jama.com
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8.
  • Britton, Annie R, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol consumption and common carotid intima-media thickness : The USE-IMT study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - Oxford University Press. - 0735-0414. ; 52:4, s. 483-486
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Epidemiological evidence indicates a protective effect of light to moderate alcohol consumption compared to non-drinking and heavy drinking. Although several mechanisms have been suggested, the effect of alcohol on atherosclerotic changes in vessel walls is unclear. Therefore, we explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and common carotid intima media thickness, a marker of early atherosclerosis in the general population. Methods: Individual participant data from eight cohorts, involving 37,494 individuals from the USE-IMT collaboration were used. Multilevel age and sex adjusted linear regression models were applied to estimate mean differences in common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) with alcohol consumption. Results: The mean age was 57.9 years (SD 8.6) and the mean CIMT was 0.75 mm (SD 0.177). About, 40.5% reported no alcohol consumed, and among those who drank, mean consumption was 13.3 g per day (SD 16.4). Those consuming no alcohol or a very small amount (<5 g per day) had significantly lower common CIMT values than those consuming >10 g per day, after adjusting for a range of confounding factors. Conclusion: In this large CIMT consortium, we did not find evidence to support a protective effect of alcohol on CIMT.
9.
  • Kimenai, Dorien M., et al. (författare)
  • Sex-Specific Versus Overall Clinical Decision Limits for Cardiac Troponin I and T for the Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction : A Systematic Review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - American Association for Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 64:7, s. 1034-1043
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The overall clinical decision limits of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI; 26 ng/L) and T (hs-cTnT; 14 ng/L) may contribute to underdiagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in women. We performed a systematic review to investigate sex-specific and overall 99th percentiles of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT derived from healthy reference populations. CONTENT: We searched in PubMed and EMBASE for original studies, and by screening reference lists. Reference populations designed to establish 99th percentiles of hs-cTnI (Abbott) and/or hs-cTnT (Roche), published between January 2009 and October 2017, were included. Sex-specific and overall 99th percentile values of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were compared with overall clinical decision ranges (hs-cTnI, 23-30 ng/L; hs-cTnT, 13-25 ng/L). Twenty-eight studies were included in the systematic review. Of 16 hs-cTnI and 18 hs-cTnT studies, 14 (87.5%) and 11 (61.1%) studies reported lower femalespecific hs-cTn cutoffs than overall clinical decision ranges, respectively. Conversely, male-specific thresholds of both hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were in line with currently used overall thresholds, particularly hs-cTnT (90% concordance). The variation of estimated overall 99th percentiles was much higher for hs-cTnI than hs-cTnT (29.4% vs 80.0% of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT studies reported values within the current overall clinical decision range, respectively). SUMMARY: Our data show substantially lower femalespecific upper reference limits of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT than overall clinical decision limits of 26 ng/L and 14 ng/L, respectively. The statistical approach strongly affects the hs-cTnI threshold. Downward adjustment of hs-cTn thresholds in women may be warranted to reduce underdiagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in women.
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10.
  • Meeuwsen, John A.L., et al. (författare)
  • High levels of (un)switched memory B cells are associated with better outcome in patients with advanced atherosclerotic disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 2047-9980. ; 6:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background--Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory lipid disorder and the main underlying pathology of acute ischemic events. Despite a vast amount of data from murine atherosclerosis models, evidence of B-cell involvement in human atherosclerotic disease is limited. We therefore investigated the association of circulating B-cell subtypes with the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events in advanced atherosclerotic disease. Methods and Results--This cohort study consists of 168 patients who were included in the Athero-Express biobank between 2009 and 2011. Before surgery, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stored in liquid nitrogen. After gentle thawing of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, different B-cell subtypes including naïve, (un)switched memory, and CD27+CD43+ B1-like B cells, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between B-cell subtypes, circulating antibodies and secondary cardiovascular manifestations during the 3-year follow-up period. Mean age was 70.1±9.6 years, males represented 62.8% of the population, and 54 patients had secondary manifestations during follow-up. High numbers of unswitched memory cells were protective against secondary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.13-0.69]; P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained for the switched memory cells that also showed to be protective against secondary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.14-0.77]; P = 0.01). Conclusions--A high number of (un)switched memory B cells is associated with better outcome following carotid artery endarterectomy. These findings suggest a potential role for B-cell subsets in prediction and prevention of secondary cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerosis.
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