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Sökning: WFRF:(van Beijsterveldt CEM)

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1.
  • Slob, E. M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Early-life antibiotic use and risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder: results of a discordant twin study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International journal of epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 50:2, s. 475-484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Development of the gut-brain axis in early life may be disturbed by antibiotic use. It has been hypothesized that this disturbance may contribute to development of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. We aimed to assess the association between antibiotic use in early life and the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder, while controlling for shared genetic and environmental factors in a discordant twin design. Methods: We conducted a cohort study in twins (7-12 years; 25 781 twins) from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and a replication study in the Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; 7946 9-year-old twins). Antibiotic use was recorded before age 2 years. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder were parent-reported in the Netherlands Twin Register and register-based in the Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Results: Early-life antibiotic use was associated with increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder development [pooled odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.17] and autism spectrum disorder (pooled OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25) in a case-control design. When restricting to monozygotic twin pairs discordant for the outcome, associations disappeared for both disorders in both cohorts (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.48-1.69 and OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.37-1.76, and autism spectrum disorder OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.38-1.16 and OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.02-4.50, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the association between early-life antibiotic use and risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorder may be confounded by shared familial environment and genetics.
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2.
  • Bolhuis, Koen, et al. (författare)
  • Disentangling Heterogeneity of Childhood Disruptive Behavior Problems Into Dimensions and Subgroups
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0890-8567 .- 1527-5418. ; 56:8, s. 678-686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Irritable and oppositional behaviors are increasingly considered as distinct dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder. However, few studies have explored this multidimensionality across the broader spectrum of disruptive behavior problems (DBPs). This study examined the presence of dimensions and distinct subgroups of childhood DBPs, and the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between these dimensions.Method: Using factor mixture models (FMMs), the presence of dimensions and subgroups of DBPs was assessed in the Generation R Study at ages 6 (n = 6,209) and 10 (n = 4,724) years. Replications were performed in two population-based cohorts (Netherlands Twin Registry, n = 4,402, and Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development, n = 1,089) and a clinical sample (n = 1,933). We used cross-lagged modeling in the Generation R Study to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dimensions. DBPs were assessed using mother-reported responses to the Child Behavior Checklist.Results: Empirically obtained dimensions of DBPs were oppositional behavior (age 6 years), disobedient behavior, rule-breaking behavior (age 10 years), physical aggression, and irritability (both ages). FMMs suggested that one-class solutions had the best model fit for all dimensions in all three population-based cohorts. Similar results were obtained in the clinical sample. All three dimensions, including irritability, predicted subsequent physical aggression (range, 0.08-0.16).Conclusion: This study showed that childhood DBPs should be regarded as a multidimensional phenotype rather than comprising distinct subgroups. Incorporating multidimensionality will improve diagnostic accuracy and refine treatment. Future studies need to address the biological validity of the DBP dimensions observed in this study; herein lies an important opportunity for neuro-imaging and genetic measures.
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3.
  • Derks, I. P. M., et al. (författare)
  • Testing Bidirectional Associations Between Childhood Aggression and BMI: Results from Three Cohorts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1930-7381 .- 1930-739X. ; 27:5, s. 822-829
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective This study examined the prospective, potentially bidirectional association of aggressive behavior with BMI and body composition across childhood in three population-based cohorts. Methods Repeated measures of aggression and BMI were available from the Generation R Study between ages 6 and 10 years (N = 3,974), the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) between ages 7 and 10 years (N = 10,328), and the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) between ages 9 and 14 years (N = 1,462). In all samples, aggression was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Fat mass and fat-free mass were available in the Generation R Study. Associations were examined with cross-lagged modeling. Results Aggressive behavior at baseline was associated with higher BMI at follow-up in the Generation R Study (beta = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.04), in NTR (beta = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.06), and in TCHAD (beta = 0.03, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.07). Aggressive behavior was prospectively associated with higher fat mass (beta = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05) but not fat-free mass. There was no evidence that BMI or body composition preceded aggressive behavior. Conclusions More aggressive behavior was prospectively associated with higher BMI and fat mass. This suggests that aggression contributes to the obesity problem, and future research should study whether these behavioral pathways to childhood obesity are modifiable.
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4.
  • Luningham, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Data Integration Methods for Phenotype Harmonization in Multi-Cohort Genome-Wide Association Studies With Behavioral Outcomes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Genetics. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-8021. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parallel meta-analysis is a popular approach for increasing the power to detect genetic effects in genome-wide association studies across multiple cohorts. Consortia studying the genetics of behavioral phenotypes are oftentimes faced with systematic differences in phenotype measurement across cohorts, introducing heterogeneity into the meta-analysis and reducing statistical power. This study investigated integrative data analysis (IDA) as an approach for jointly modeling the phenotype across multiple datasets. We put forth a bi-factor integration model (BFIM) that provides a single common phenotype score and accounts for sources of study-specific variability in the phenotype. In order to capitalize on this modeling strategy, a phenotype reference panel was utilized as a supplemental sample with complete data on all behavioral measures. A simulation study showed that a mega-analysis of genetic variant effects in a BFIM were more powerful than meta-analysis of genetic effects on a cohort-specific sum score of items. Saving the factor scores from the BFIM and using those as the outcome in meta-analysis was also more powerful than the sum score in most simulation conditions, but a small degree of bias was introduced by this approach. The reference panel was necessary to realize these power gains. An empirical demonstration used the BFIM to harmonize aggression scores in 9-year old children across the Netherlands Twin Register and the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, providing a template for application of the BFIM to a range of different phenotypes. A supplemental data collection in the Netherlands Twin Register served as a reference panel for phenotype modeling across both cohorts. Our results indicate that model-based harmonization for the study of complex traits is a useful step within genetic consortia.
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5.
  • Silventoinen, Karri, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment : an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Springer Nature. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the heritability of educational attainment and how it differed between birth cohorts and cultural–geographic regions. A classical twin design was applied to pooled data from 28 cohorts representing 16 countries and including 193,518 twins with information on educational attainment at 25 years of age or older. Genetic factors explained the major part of individual differences in educational attainment (heritability: a2 = 0.43; 0.41–0.44), but also environmental variation shared by co-twins was substantial (c2 = 0.31; 0.30–0.33). The proportions of educational variation explained by genetic and shared environmental factors did not differ between Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia. When restricted to twins 30 years or older to confirm finalized education, the heritability was higher in the older cohorts born in 1900–1949 (a2 = 0.44; 0.41–0.46) than in the later cohorts born in 1950–1989 (a2 = 0.38; 0.36–0.40), with a corresponding lower influence of common environmental factors (c2 = 0.31; 0.29–0.33 and c2 = 0.34; 0.32–0.36, respectively). In conclusion, both genetic and environmental factors shared by co-twins have an important influence on individual differences in educational attainment. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.
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7.
  • Silventoinen, K., et al. (författare)
  • Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region : An individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : American Society for Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 106:2, s. 457-466
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood.Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity.Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins ≥20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs).Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 20-29 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI.Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.
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8.
  • Silventoinen, Karri, et al. (författare)
  • Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years : An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - Stockholm : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 20:5, s. 395-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
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9.
  • Silventoinen, K., et al. (författare)
  • Educational attainment of same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins : An individual-level pooled study of 19 twin cohorts
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Hormones and Behavior. - : Academic Press. - 0018-506X .- 1095-6867. ; 136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comparing twins from same- and opposite-sex pairs can provide information on potential sex differences in a variety of outcomes, including socioeconomic-related outcomes such as educational attainment. It has been suggested that this design can be applied to examine the putative role of intrauterine exposure to testosterone for educational attainment, but the evidence is still disputed. Thus, we established an international database of twin data from 11 countries with 88,290 individual dizygotic twins born over 100 years and tested for differences between twins from same- and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs in educational attainment. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by linear regression models after adjusting for birth year and twin study cohort. In contrast to the hypothesis, no difference was found in women (β = −0.05 educational years, 95% CI −0.11, 0.02). However, men with a same-sex co-twin were slightly more educated than men having an opposite-sex co-twin (β = 0.14 educational years, 95% CI 0.07, 0.21). No consistent differences in effect sizes were found between individual twin study cohorts representing Europe, the USA, and Australia or over the cohorts born during the 20th century, during which period the sex differences in education reversed favoring women in the latest birth cohorts. Further, no interaction was found with maternal or paternal education. Our results contradict the hypothesis that there would be differences in the intrauterine testosterone levels between same-sex and opposite-sex female twins affecting education. Our findings in men may point to social dynamics within same-sex twin pairs that may benefit men in their educational careers.
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10.
  • Silventoinen, K., et al. (författare)
  • The CODATwins Project : The current status and recent findings of COllaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 22:6, s. 800-808
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural-geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status. 
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