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Sökning: WFRF:(Öberg Kjell 1946 ) > (2020)

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1.
  • Clift, Ashley Kieran, et al. (författare)
  • Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Small Bowel and Pancreas
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - : S. Karger. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 110:6, s. 444-476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The traditionally promulgated perspectives of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) as rare, indolent tumours are blunt and have been outdated for the last 2 decades. Clear increments in their incidence over the past decades render them increasingly clinically relevant, and at initial diagnosis many present with nodal and/or distant metastases (notably hepatic). The molecular pathogenesis of these tumours is increasingly yet incompletely understood. Those arising from the small bowel (SB) or pancreas typically occur sporadically; the latter may occur within the context of hereditary tumour predisposition syndromes. NENs can also be associated with endocrinopathy of hormonal hypersecretion. Tangible advances in the development of novel biomarkers, functional imaging modalities and therapy are especially applicable to this sub-set of tumours. The management of SB and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET) may be challenging, and often comprises a multidisciplinary approach wherein surgical, medical, interventional radiological and radiotherapeutic modalities are implemented. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of SB and pancreatic NETs. Moreover, we provide an outlook of the future in these tumour types which will include the development of precision oncology frameworks for individualised therapy, multi-analyte predictive biomarkers, artificial intelligence-derived clinical decision support tools and elucidation of the role of the microbiome in NEN development and clinical behaviour.
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2.
  • Malczewska, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • An Assessment of Circulating Chromogranin A as a Biomarker of Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasia : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 110:3-4, s. 198-216
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Management of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN; pulmonary carcinoids [PCs], small-cell lung cancer [SCLC], and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma) is hampered by the paucity of biomarkers. Chromogranin A (CgA), the default neuroendocrine tumor biomarker, has undergone wide assessment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.Objectives: To evaluate CgA in lung NEN, define its clinical utility as a biomarker, assess its diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive efficacy, as well as its accuracy in the identification of disease recurrence.Methods: A systematic review of PubMed was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. No language restrictions were applied. Overall, 33 original scientific papers and 3 case reports, which met inclusion criteria, were included in qualitative analysis, and meta-analysis thereafter. All studies, except 2, were retrospective. Meta-analysis statistical assessment by generic inverse variance methodology.Results: Ten different CgA assay types were reported, without consistency in the upper limit of normal (ULN). For PCs (n = 16 studies; median patient inclusion 21 [range 1-200, total: 591 patients]), the CgA diagnostic sensitivity was 34.5 +/- 2.7% with a specificity of 93.8 +/- 4.7. CgA metrics were not available separately for typical or atypical carcinoids. CgA >100 ng/mL (2.7 x ULN) and >600 ng/mL (ULN unspecified) were anecdotally prognostic for overall survival (n = 2 retrospective studies). No evidence was presented for predicting treatment response or identifying post-surgery residual disease. For SCLC (n = 19 studies; median patient inclusion 23 [range 5-251, total: 1,241 patients]), the mean diagnostic sensitivity was 59.9 +/- 6.8% and specificity 79.4 +/- 3.1. Extensive disease typically exhibited higher CgA levels (diagnostic accuracy: 61 +/- 2.5%). An elevated CgA was prognostic for overall survival (n = 4 retrospective studies). No prospective studies evaluating predictive benefit or prognostic utility were identified.Conclusion: The available data are scarce. An assessment of all published data showed that CgA exhibits major limitations as an effective and accurate biomarker for either PC or SCLC. Its utility especially for localized PC/limited SCLC (when surgery is potentially curative), is limited. The clinical value of CgA remains to be determined. This requires validated, well-constructed, multicenter, prospective, randomized studies. An assessment of all published data indicates that CgA does not exhibit the minimum required metrics to function as a clinically useful biomarker for lung NENs.
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3.
  • Malczewska, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The clinical applications of a multigene liquid biopsy (NETest) in neuroendocrine tumors
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Advances in Medical Sciences. - 1896-1126 .- 1898-4002. ; 65:1, s. 18-29
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: There are few effective biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumors. Precision oncology strategies have provided liquid biopsies for real-time and tailored decision-making. This has led to the development of the first neuroendocrine tumor liquid biopsy (the NETest). The NETest represents a transcriptomic signature of neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) that captures tumor biology and disease activity. The data have direct clinical application in terms of identifying residual disease, disease progress and the efficacy of treatment. In this overview we assess the available published information on the metrics and clinical efficacy of the NETest. Material and methods: Published data on the NETest have been collated and analyzed to understand the clinical application of this multianalyte biomarker in NETs. Results: NETest assay has been validated as a standardized and reproducible clinical laboratory measurement. It is not affected by demographic characteristics, or acid suppressive medication. Clinical utility of the NETest has been documented in gastroenteropancreatic, bronchopulmonary NETs, in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. The test facilitates accurate diagnosis of a NET disease, and real-time monitoring of the disease status (stable/progressive disease). It predicts aggressive tumor behavior, identifies operative tumor resection, and efficacy of the medical treatment (e.g. somatostatin analogues), or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). NETest metrics and clinical applications out-perform standard biomarkers like chromogranin A. Conclusions: The NETest exhibits clinically competent metrics as an effective biomarker for neuroendocrine tumors. Measurement of NET transcripts in blood is a significant advance in neuroendocrine tumor management and demonstrates that blood provides a viable source to identify and monitor tumor status.
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4.
  • Matar, Somer, et al. (författare)
  • Blood Chromogranin A Is Not Effective as a Biomarker for Diagnosis or Management of Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors/Neoplasms
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 110:3-4, s. 185-197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Identification of circulating tumor markers for clinical management in bronchopulmonary (BP) neuroendocrine tumors/neoplasms (NET/NEN) is of considerable clinical interest. Chromogranin A (CgA), a "universal" NET biomarker, is considered controversial as a circulating biomarker of BPNEN.Aim: Assess utility of CgA in the diagnosis and management of BPNEN in a multicentric study.Material and Methods: CgA diagnostic metrics were assessed in lung NET/NENs (n = 200) and controls (n = 140), randomly assigned to a Training and Test set (100 BPC and 70 controls in each). Assay specificity was evaluated in neoplastic lung disease (n = 137) and nonneoplastic lung disease (n = 77). CgA efficacy in predicting clinical status was evaluated in the combined set of 200 NET/NENs. CgA levels in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (BPNET) subtypes (atypical [AC] vs. typical [TC]) and grade was examined. The clinical utility of an alteration of CgA levels (+/- 25%) was evaluated in a subset of 49 BPNET over 12 months. CgA measurement was by NEOLISA(TM) kit (EuroDiagnostica).Results: Sensitivity and specificity in the training set were 41/98%, respectively. Test set data were 42/87%. Training set area under receiver operator characteristic analysis differentiated BPC from control area under the curve (AUC) 0.61 +/- 0.05 p = 0.015. Test set the data were AUC 0.58 +/- 0.05, p = 0.076. In the combined set (n = 200), 67% BPNET/NEN (n = 134) had normal CgA levels. CgA levels did not distinguish histological subtypes (TC vs. AC, AUC 0.56 +/- 0.04, p = 0.21), grade (p = 0.45-0.72), or progressive from stable disease (AUC 0.53 +/- 0.05 p = 0.47). There was no correlation of CgA with Ki-67 index (Pearson r = 0.143, p = 0.14). For nonneoplastic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), CgA was elevated in 26-37%. For neoplastic disease (NSCLC, squamous cell carcinoma), CgA was elevated in 11-16%. The neuroendocrine SCLC also exhibited elevated CgA (50%). Elevated CgA was not useful for differentiating BPNET/NEN from these other pathologies. Monitoring BPNET/NEN over a 12-month period identified neither CgA levels per se nor changes in CgA were reflective of somatostatin analog treatment outcome/efficacy or the natural history of the disease (progression).Conclusions: Blood CgA levels are not clinically useful as a biomarker for lung BPNET/NEN. The low specificity and elevations in both nonneoplastic as well as other common neoplastic lung diseases identified limited clinical utility for this biomarker.
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5.
  • Pavel, M., et al. (författare)
  • Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms : ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 31:7, s. 844-860
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine cell system and may occur at many different disease sites. Most frequently, these neoplasms occur in the digestive system, followed by the lung. The term NEN encompasses well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). NECs represent only 10%–20% of all NENs. The main focus of these guidelines is on sporadic small intestinal (SI)-NENs and pancreatic NENs (Pan-NENs) since these are the most prevalent NENs at advanced disease stages. In general, the management of other gastrointestinal NENs follows the same principles as in SI- or Pan-NENs taking into consideration key features of NENs such as proliferative activity, somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression, tumour growth rate and extent of the disease.
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6.
  • Strosberg, Jonathan, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of liver tumour burden, alkaline phosphatase elevation, and target lesion size on treatment outcomes with Lu-177-Dotatate : an analysis of the NETTER-1 study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : SPRINGER. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 47:10, s. 2372-2382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To assess the impact of baseline liver tumour burden, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) elevation, and target lesion size on treatment outcomes with Lu-177-Dotatate. Methods In the phase 3 NETTER-1 trial, patients with advanced, progressive midgut neuroendocrine tumours (NET) were randomised to 177Lu-Dotatate (every 8 weeks, four cycles) plus octreotide long-acting release (LAR) or to octreotide LAR 60 mg. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Analyses of PFS by baseline factors, including liver tumour burden, ALP elevation, and target lesion size, were performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. Results Significantly prolonged median PFS occurred with Lu-177-Dotatate versus octreotide LAR 60 mg in patients with low (< 25%), moderate (25-50%), and high (> 50%) liver tumour burden (HR 0.187, 0.216, 0.145), and normal or elevated ALP (HR 0.153, 0.177), and in the presence or absence of a large target lesion (diameter > 30 mm; HR, 0.213, 0.063). Within the Lu-177-Dotatate arm, no significant difference in PFS was observed amongst patients with low/moderate/high liver tumour burden (P = 0.7225) or with normal/elevated baseline ALP (P = 0.3532), but absence of a large target lesion was associated with improved PFS (P = 0.0222). Grade 3 and 4 liver function abnormalities were rare and did not appear to be associated with high baseline liver tumour burden. Conclusions Lu-177-Dotatate demonstrated significant prolongation in PFS versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with advanced, progressive midgut NET, regardless of baseline liver tumour burden, elevated ALP, or the presence of a large target lesion. : NCT01578239, EudraCT: 2011-005049-11
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7.
  • Tholander, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Complete response with combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in BRAF mutated advanced low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - 0300-9734 .- 2000-1967. ; 125:4, s. 325-329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More effective treatments are needed for low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC). Our patient, who suffers from metastatic LGSOC, had received all established treatments. Sequencing analysis revealed an activating BRAF mutation. Therefore, combined treatment with BRAF and MEK inhibitors, which is the gold standard in malignant melanoma, was initiated. After eight months of therapy, the response was assessed as complete and the treatment is still, 3.5 years after initiation, of benefit. To our knowledge, no complete response on combined BRAF and MEK inhibitor treatment of low-grade serous ovarian cancer has previously been reported.
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8.
  • Öberg, Kjell, 1946-, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of the accuracy of a neuroendocrine tumor mRNA genomic biomarker (NETest) in blood
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 31:2, s. 202-212
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The lack of an accurate blood biomarker in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) disease has hindered management. The advance of genomic medicine and the development of molecular biomarkers has provided a strategy-liquid biopsy-to facilitate real-time management. We reviewed the role of a blood mRNA-based NET biomarker, the NETest, as an in vitro diagnostic (IVD).Patients and methods: A systematic review of the literature using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was undertaken. The methodological quality was evaluated using the QUADAS-2 tool. We identified ten original scientific papers that met the inclusion criteria. These were assessed by qualitative analysis and thereafter meta-analysis. Data were pooled and a median [95% confidence interval (CI)] diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratio (+LR), and negative likelihood ratio (-LR) were calculated. For the meta-analysis, a generic inverse variance method was undertaken using the accuracy and area under the curve (AUC) data.Results: The ten studies exhibited moderate to high methodological quality. They evaluated NETest usage both as a diagnostic and as a monitoring tool. The meta-analysis identified the diagnostic accuracy of the NETest to be 95%-96% with a mean DOR of 5 853, +LR of 195, and -LR of 0.06. The NETest was 84.5%-85.5% accurate in differentiating stable disease from progressive disease. As a marker of natural history, the accuracy was 91.5%-97.8%. As an interventional/response biomarker, the accuracy was 93.7%-97.4%. The pooled AUC for the NETest was 0.954 +/- 0.005, with a z-statistic of 175.06 (P < 0.001).Conclusions: The NETest is an accurate biomarker suitable for clinical use in NET disease management. The meta-analysis supports the utility of the NETest as an IVD to establish a diagnosis and monitor therapeutic efficacy. The use of this as a biomarker provides information relevant to NET management consistent with observations regarding utility of liquid biopsies in other oncological disciplines.
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