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Sökning: WFRF:(Österberg Kai)

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  • Fjalldal, Sigridur, et al. (författare)
  • Hypothalamic Involvement Predicts Cognitive Performance and Psychosocial Health in Long-term Survivors of Childhood Craniopharyngioma
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X. ; 98:8, s. 3253-3262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Hypothalamic damage caused by craniopharyngioma (CP) is associated with poor functional outcome. Objective: To assess cognitive function and quality of life in childhood-onset CP on hormonal replacement, including GH treatment. Design: A cross-sectional study with a median follow-up time of 20 years (1-40). Setting: Patients were recruited from the South Medical Region of Sweden. Participants: The study included 42 patients (20 women) surgically treated for a childhood-onset CP between 1958 and 2000. Patients were aged >= 17 years. Equally many controls, matched for age, sex, residence, and smoking habits, were included. Tumor growth into the third ventricle was found in 25 patients. Main Outcome Measures: All subjects were examined with a battery of cognitive tests and the following questionnaires: Symptom Checklist-90, the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction, and the Social Network concept. Results: The CP patients had lower cognitive performance, reaching statistical significance in 12 of 20 test variables, including executive function and memory. Comparison of patients with tumor growth into the third ventricle to controls revealed a significant lower mean total score (P = .006). A significant negative correlation was recorded between mean z-score of cognitive performance and years since operation (r = -0.407; P = .014). No statistically significant group differences were observed across any of the 9 Symptom Checklist-90 subscales. Conclusions: Adults with childhood-onset CP, on hormone replacement, including GH treatment, have memory defects, disturbed attention, and impaired processing speed. Patients with hypothalamic involvement are more affected. Patients rated their quality of life as good as their matched controls.
  • Jönsson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and habituation to a virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Test: A pilot study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 1873-3360 .- 0306-4530. ; 35, s. 1397-1403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a widely used protocol to induce stress in laboratory settings. Briefly, in the TSST, the test participant is asked to hold a speech and to do an arithmetic task in front of an audience. In the present pilot study, we examined endocrine and autonomic reactivity and habituation to repeated stress provocations using a virtual reality (VR) version of TSST. The VR system was a CAVE system with three rear projected walls (4mx3m), and one floor projection. The system also included a head tracking system and passive stereoscopy. The virtual audience consisted of one woman, and two men. Ten healthy men, mean age 28.3 years (24-38 years), were confronted with the test twice (1 week between sessions), during which salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR), high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV, parasympathetic activity), and T-wave amplitude (TWA, suggested to be related to sympathetic influence on myocardial performance) were assessed. Cortisol secretion showed a marked increase (88% vs. baseline) during the first stress provocation, but habituated in the second session. The magnitude of HR and TWA reactivity during stress provocation was approximately the same at both sessions, implying a stable increase in sympathetic activity. Heart rate showed a maximum increase of 40% at the first session, and 32% at the second. TWA showed a maximum decrease of 42% at the first session, and 39% at the second. The results resemble those obtained in prior studies using the real-life TSST. If these results can be replicated with larger samples, VR technology may be used as a simple and standardized tool for social stress induction in experimental settings.
  • Karlson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term stability of return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick leave for burnout.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2458. ; 14:Aug 9, s. 821
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s saw a rapid increase in long-term sick leave in Sweden, primarily due to mental illness and often related to job burnout. This led to an urge for effective treatment programs that could prevent the often long sick leaves. In 2010 we presented a newly developed work-place intervention method, showing that 89% of the intervention group had returned to work at a 1.5 year follow-up, compared to 73% of the control group. The main aim of this study was to assess the long-term stability of these promising results.
  • Karlson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Return to work after work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick-leave for burnout - a prospective controlled study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2458. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In the present study the effect of a workplace-oriented intervention for persons on long-term sick leave for clinical burnout, aimed at facilitating return to work (RTW) by job-person match through patient-supervisor communication, was evaluated. We hypothesised that the intervention group would show a more successful RTW than a control group. Methods: In a prospective controlled study, subjects were identified by the regional social insurance office 2-6 months after the first day on sick leave. The intervention group (n = 74) was compared to a control group who had declined participation, being matched by length of sick leave (n = 74). The RTW was followed up, using sick-listing register data, until 1.5 years after the time of intervention. Results: There was a linear increase of RTW in the intervention group during the 1.5-year follow-up period, and 89% of subjects had returned to work to some extent at the end of the follow-up period. The increase in RTW in the control group came to a halt after six months, and only 73% had returned to work to some extent at the end of the 1.5-year follow-up. Conclusions: We conclude that the present study demonstrated an improvement of long-term RTW after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on long-term sick leave due to burnout. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials NCT01039168.
  • Persson, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Chronobiology International. - Taylor & Francis. - 0742-0528. ; 25:6, s. 923-937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30min, +8h, and at 21:00h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time-of-day (4 levels) as categorical predictors. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed on a log scale. The diurnal pattern of cortisol was similar across months (interaction between month and time of day: p0.4). The main effects of month and time-of-day were statistically significant (p0.001). Highest concentrations were observed in February, March, and April, and lowest concentrations were observed in July and August. There were no statistically significant effects in any of the other measures, or between men and women. In conclusion, a seasonal variation in salivary cortisol concentrations was detected in an occupationally active population. Thus, seasonal variation needs to be taken into account when designing and evaluating field studies and interventions and when making comparisons across studies.
  • Bulow, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • High incidence of mental disorders, reduced mental well-being and cognitive function in hypopituitary women with GH deficiency treated for pituitary disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - Blackwell Publishing. - 1365-2265 .- 0300-0664. ; 56:2, s. 183-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Previous studies have shown possible neuroendocrine effects of GH. In the present study we investigated the incidence of mental disorders and the prevalence of mental distress and cognitive dysfunction in hypopituitary women with untreated GH deficiency compared to population-based controls. Design and Patients Thirty-three hypopituitary women with a median age of 64 years (range 3977 years) were investigated cross-sectionally, without any change in hormone substitutions. Twenty-nine of the patients had been operated for a pituitary tumour, 25 had received radiotherapy and 15 had visual dysfunction. The patients were with a very high probability GH deficient, as 29 had subnormal IGF-I levels and the other four were GH deficient as assessed by an insulin tolerance test. The patients were compared with 33 controls matched for sex, age, smoking habits, educational level and residence. Measurements The incidence of mental disorders was calculated from the date of diagnosed hypopituitarism to the time of the present investigation. Mental well-being was assessed by three self-rating questionnaires: the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) and the social network concept. The subjects were examined with neuropsychological tests of vocabulary (SRB:1 vocabulary test), perceptual speed (WAIS-R Digit Symbol), spatial ability (WAIS-R Block Design), verbal memory (Cronholm-Molander verbal memory test), spatial learning (Austin Maze Test) and reaction time (APT Two-way Reaction Time and APT Inhibition). Results The hypopituitary women had a higher incidence of mental disorders than the controls; Incidence Rate Ratio 4.5 (95% CI 1.0-21). The Global Severity Index, i.e. the average score of all 90 questions of the SCL-90, was higher in patients (P=0.001), and the patients had significantly more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, depression, obsession-compulsion, hostility-irritability, phobic and psychotic symptoms (all Pless than or equal to0.04). Moreover, 14 patients compared to four controls were classified as possible cases of mental distress according to the SCL-90 (P=0.006). The patients experienced lower availability of both social attachment (P=0.02) and integration (P=0.001), but there were no group differences in the adequacy of these dimensions or in emotional support. The patients had lower scores in four of seven neuropsychological tests (all Pless than or equal to0.04). Conclusions The hypopituitary women had a higher incidence of mental disorders, more symptoms of mental distress and increased prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. The impaired results in the patients could possibly be explained by several factors, such as transfrontal surgery, radiotherapy, visual dysfunction and unphysiological hormone substitution. Moreover, it is probable that GH deficiency contributed, but placebo-controlled double-blind studies are warranted to investigate whether the psychological dysfunction is reversible on GH substitution.
  • Carter, N, et al. (författare)
  • EUROQUEST - A questionnaire for solvent related symptoms: Factor structure, item analysis and predictive validity
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Neurotoxicology. - Elsevier. - 0161-813X. ; 23:6, s. 711-717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study evaluates the factor structure and predictive validity of the symptom questionnaire EUROQUEST (EQ) that had been developed with the goal of simplifying the evaluation of health effects associated with long-term solvent exposure. The EQ was added to the normal evaluation procedures for 118 male patients with suspected solvent-induced toxic encephalopathy (TE) referred to seven Swedish clinics of occupational medicine during an 18-month period. EQ was also completed by 239 males from a random sample of 400 Swedish males aged 25-64 years selected from the general population and a sample of 559 occupationally active male spray painters aged 25-64 years. Factor and item analyses of EQ responses were performed. Ordinary least square regression analysis was used to evaluate sensitivity and correlation to evaluate the specificity of EQ and the separate components. Questions concerning memory and concentration symptoms alone showed better sensitivity than the other five EQ dimensions singly or combined for the entire EQ and for a subset of questions approximating Q16, a widely used organic solvent symptom screening questionnaire. However, the diagnosis of TE required information in addition to exposure and responses to EQ and Q16-like questions. The results indicate that the subset of EQ questions concerning memory and concentration might replace the more cumbersome EQ and less sensitive Q16 in screening for TE, although none of the screening instruments alone replaces current clinical diagnostic procedures. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Eek, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Factors associated with prospective development of environmental annoyance
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. - Elsevier. - 0022-3999 .- 1879-1360. ; 69:1, s. 9-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) has in cross-sectional studies been associated with emotional problems and psychiatric disorders. However, in the absence of prospective studies it has not been possible to determine whether emotional problems precede the onset of IEI, or are a consequence of IEI. The purpose of this study was to address this issue in a prospective panel study design. Methods: The study sample (n=10 275) responded to a postal survey that included five questions regarding annoyance from environmental factors, at baseline and at follow-up five years later. Associations between a number of self-rating scales of stress, subjective health, and working conditions at baseline on one hand, and development of environmental annoyance from baseline to follow-up on the other, were examined. Results: Participants having developed environmental annoyance between baseline and follow-up had at baseline reported more subjective health complaints, higher levels of stress, strain, and lack of recovery, more dissatisfaction with their work situation, and lower personal social support, compared to participants not developing environmental annoyance. Conclusion: Elevated subjective health complaints, high stress in daily life and a strained work situation, all possible signs of sustained arousal, increase the risk of developing annoyance to environmental factors. The results fit the hypothesis that reduced subjective health, over the course of time, may be attributed to environmental factors. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Follin, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Risk, Cardiac Function, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life with and without Long-Term Growth Hormone Therapy in Adult Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 95, s. 3726-3735
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Long-term data are missing in GH-treated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. GH therapy may result in poorer outcome regarding cardiovascular (CV) and particularly cardiac effects than in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate GH therapy on CV risk, cardiac function, physical activity, and quality of life in ALL patients treated with cranial radiotherapy (18-24 Gy) and chemotherapy (anthracycline dose 120 mg/m(2)). Design and Setting: We conducted a 5- and 8-yr open nonrandomized prospective study in a university hospital clinic. Study Participants: Two groups of GH-deficient ALL patients (aged 25 yr; range 19-32 yr) and matched population controls participated. Interventions: One ALL group (n = 16) received GH for 5 yr, and the other ALL group (n = 13) did not receive GH therapy. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated the prevalence of CV risk factors and metabolic syndrome (International Diabetes Federation consensus), cardiac function (echocardiography), and quality of life and physical activity questionnaires. Results: In comparison with 8 yr without, 5 yr with GH therapy resulted in significant positive changes in plasma glucose (-0.5 vs. 0.6 mmol/liter, P = 0.002), apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio (-0.1 vs. 0.0, P = 0.03), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.20 vs.-0.01 mmol/liter, P = 0.008) and a significant reduction in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.008). No significant difference in the left-ventricular systolic function or in physical activity and quality of life was recorded before and after 5 or 8 yr, respectively (all P > 0.3). Conclusion: GH therapy reduced the CV risk in this young ALL population but resulted in no clear benefit or deterioration in cardiac function.
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