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Sökning: WFRF:(Adami Hans Olov) > (1995-1999)

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1.
  • Adami, Hans-Olov, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and risk of non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma : a prospective study
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 70:2, s. 155-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), is likely to be related to immune function. In the light of the established immunologic effects of a pregnancy, we decided to examine the risk of NHL and CLL in relationship to full-term pregnancies. Within a nationwide cohort we identified 1,546 women with NHL and 198 women with CLL, all 15 years or older, born 1925-1972. Five age-matched controls were selected for each case patient. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios after mutual adjustment for number of births and age at first birth. We found a weak, negative association between parity and risk of NHL (p for trend 0.11) and a transient, 10-40% decrease in risk within 5-14 years after the last birth among women with various parity status. The risk of CLL decreased more markedly, and orderly with increasing parity, but the trend was not significant (p = 0.18). Small numbers of cases with CLL prevented more detailed analyses of temporal relationships. Age at first birth appeared unrelated to the risk of both NHL and CLL. We conclude that the immunologic alterations associated with a pregnancy have limited, if any, relevance to the etiology of NHL and CLL; changing reproductive pattern is an unlikely contributor to the marked increase in incidence of NHL seen in many populations.
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2.
  • Lambe, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Childbearing and the risk of Hodgkin's disease
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 7:9, s. 831-834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The causes of Hodgkin's disease remain incompletely known, but a higher incidence in men than in women has prompted an interest in the role of female sex hormones and reproductive history. Available epidemiological data are, however, contradictory. We analyzed possible associations between parity, age at first birth, and the risk of developing Hodgkin's disease by a linkage between the Swedish Cancer Register and a nationwide Fertility Register. Among women born between 1925 and 1972, 917 cases with Hodgkin's disease and concomitant fertility information were identified. For each case patient, five age-matched controls were randomly selected among women in the Fertility Register. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of Hodgkin's disease associated with a birth. We found a slightly and nonsignificantly reduced risk of Hodgkin's disease in ever-parous compared with nulliparous women. Among parous women, the number of children was unrelated to risk, whereas there was some evidence of an increased risk with late age at first birth in women under age 45 at diagnosis. No clear temporal relations between childbearing and subsequent risk were discernible in any parity or age group. Although uncontrolled confounding might have affected our results, they do not indicate that hormonal or immunological changes associated with childbearing play a role in the development of Hodgkin's disease.
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3.
  • Liljegren, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • 10-year Results After Sector Resection With or Without Postoperative Radiotherapy for Stage I Breast Cancer : a Randomized Trial
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 17:8, s. 2326-2333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To study the long-term effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy after sector resection for breast cancer in a randomized trial in which mammography is a major pathway to diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred eighty-one women with a unifocal breast cancer < or = 20 mm in diameter on the preoperative mammogram and without histopathologic signs of axillary metastases were treated by sector resection plus axillary dissection. Of these patients, 184 women were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy to the breast (XRT group), and 197 women received no further treatment (non-XRT group). RESULTS: The local recurrence rate was 8.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9% to 13.1%) in the XRT group and 24.0% (95% CI, 17.6% to 30.4%) in the non-XRT group (P =.0001). Survival free from regional and distant recurrence was 83. 3% in the XRT group (95% CI, 77.5% to 89.1%) and 80.0% in the non-XRT group (95% CI, 73.9% to 86.1%) (P =.23). Overall survival was 77.5% in the XRT group (95% CI, 70.9% to 84.1%) and 78% in the non-XRT group (95% CI, 71.7% to 84.3%) (P =.99). A subgroup analysis suggested that women older than 55 years of age without comedo or lobular carcinomas had a low risk of local recurrence of 6.1% (95% CI, 0.1% to 9.1%) in the XRT-group and 11.0% (4.0% to 18.0%) in the non-XRT group (P =.16). CONCLUSION: Sector resection plus radiotherapy resulted in an absolute reduction in local recurrence of 16% at 10 years compared with surgery alone. Women older than 55 years of age without comedo or lobular carcinomas may have a low risk of local recurrence. Postoperative radiotherapy was not shown to reduce distant recurrences or improve overall survival.
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6.
  • Adami, Hans-Olov, et al. (författare)
  • The aetiology and pathogenesis of human breast cancer
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Mutation research. - 0027-5107 .- 1873-135X. ; 333:1-2, s. 29-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whilst investigators have clearly shown that non-hereditary factors dominate the aetiology of human breast cancer, they have failed to identify quantitatively important causes, and prospects for prevention remain indeed limited. However, progress in epidemiological and basic research has taken place during the last few years. Current evidence suggests that breast cancer may be affected by the intra-uterine environment, that exposures during adolescence are particularly important, and that pregnancy has a dual effect on breast cancer risk: an early increase followed by long-term protection. Great variation exists in the structural development of the breast ductal system already in the newborn--and by inference in utero--and a pregnancy induces permanent structural changes in the mammary gland. We suggest that these observations fit into an aetiological model with the following key components: (1) breast cancer risk depends on the number of cells at risk, the susceptibility of individual cells to malignant transformation, and on the degree of cellular proliferation, notably cells which can act as founders of breast cancer; (2) the number of target cells is determined by the hormonal environment mainly early in life, perhaps already in utero; (3) in adult life, hormones which are non-genotoxic, increase breast cancer risk by increasing selective cell proliferation and thus number of target cells and the risk of retention of spontaneous somatic mutations; (4) while a pregnancy stimulates the growth of already malignant cells or cells close to malignant transformation (and thereby entails a short-term risk increase) the dominating long-term protection occurs due to permanent structural changes, terminal differentiation and perhaps decreased cell proliferation and carcinogen-binding in combination.
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7.
  • Akre, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in relation to testicular-cancer risk : a nested case-control study
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 82:1, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An infectious etiology of testicular cancer has been suggested. We have evaluated seroreactivity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in relation to testicular-cancer risk in a case-control study, nested within a cohort of prospectively collected serum specimens from 293,692 individuals. For each of 81 cases of testicular cancer identified, 3 controls were randomly selected from the cohort. Serum IgG antibody titers against CMV and EBV were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunofluorescence methods. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained from conditional logistic-regression models. No association was found between CMV positivity and testicular cancer overall (OR = 1.08; 95% confidence interval 0.60-1.94); risk for testicular seminoma was increased among CMV seropositive [OR = 1.70 (0.80-3.59)], whereas seropositivity was associated with decreased risk for testicular non-seminoma [OR = 0.54 (0.19-1.56)] (p for heterogeneity, 0.09). For EBV, the risk for testicular cancer was increased among individuals seropositive for viral capsid antigen (VCA) [OR = 2.74 (0.62-12.12)]. The results lend some support to the hypothesis of an infectious etiology, and we propose that future studies should take into account age at infection.
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8.
  • Cnattingius, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal and neonatal risk factors for childhood lymphatic leukemia
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 87:12, s. 908-914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Because the incidence of childhood acute lymphatic leukemia peaks between 2 and 4 years of age, the risk factors may exert their influence during the prenatal and/or the neonatal periods. Results of previous studies of perinatal risk factors have been contradictory, perhaps because most studies either have been hospital based or have been restricted to limited geographical areas. PURPOSE: A nationwide case-control study was carried out to identify maternal and perinatal risk factors for this disease. METHODS: The case-control study was nested in cohorts defined by all live births in Sweden recorded in the nationwide Medical Birth Register. Since 1973, this register has routinely collected information on all hospital births in regard to maternal demographic data, reproductive history, pregnancy, delivery, and the neonatal period. From the Swedish National Cancer Register, 613 case subjects were identified in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1989. Five control subjects per case subject were randomly selected from the pool of children matched by sex and month and year of birth. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential risk factors and to estimate their effects after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Risk of childhood lymphatic leukemia at all ages increased with Down's syndrome (OR = 20.0; 95% CI = 4.2-94.2), maternal renal disease (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 1.6-12.1), use of supplementary oxygen (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.5-3.6), postpartum asphyxia (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2-2.6), birth weight of more than 4500 g (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1-2.7), and hypertensive disease during pregnancy (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9). Down's syndrome affected risk mostly in children younger than 5 years, whereas other factors affected those children 5 years old or older. Being one of a multiple birth also increased risk among older children (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.0-6.0). Use of supplementary oxygen may act as a causal intermediate (surrogate) for postpartum asphyxia and its causes, as would high birth weight for its causes. CONCLUSIONS: Several maternal and perinatal risk factors were found to be associated with childhood lymphatic leukemia, but they showed age-specific differences. Overall, only a few risk factors were identified, and these accounted for a small proportion of cases. We concluded that most risk factors for childhood lymphatic leukemia remain unidentified in very young children.
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9.
  • Ekbom, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Perinatal characteristics and adult mammographic patterns
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 61:2, s. 177-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We retrieved breast mammograms for 370 women 40 to 74 years old with no history of breast cancer, for whom birth weight, birth length, placental weight and other birth characteristics were indicated in their standard birth records at the Uppsala University Hospital. Blind evaluation of the mammograms allowed these to be classified according to Wolfe's pattern. Logistic regression analysis was applied using as independent variables the recorded birth characteristics and as outcome variable, high risk (P2 and DY) versus low risk (N1 and P1) mammographic parenchymal pattern. After controlling for all the recorded variables, the odds ratio for a high-risk pattern (P2 or DY) increased consistently and significantly (P for trend 0.02) with the weight of the placenta, i.e. the main estrogen-producing organ during pregnancy. There were weak and non-significant positive associations with increasing birth weight (P for trend 0.53) and birth length (P for trend 0.52). These results are compatible with hypotheses suggesting that pregnancy estrogens or other perinatal characteristics may play a risk-modulating role influencing breast cancer in the offspring.
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10.
  • Ekbom, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Perinatal characteristics in relation to incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 0959-8138. ; 313:7053, s. 337-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that factors causing morbidity and mortality from prostate cancer may operate in utero. DESIGN--Matched case-control study of singleton men born between 1874 and 1946 at one hospital. SETTING--Uppsala University Hospital. SUBJECTS--250 patients with prostate cancer and 691 controls, including 80 patients who died from prostate cancer and their 196 matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mother's age at menarche, parity, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia before delivery, age at delivery and socioeconomic status; case or control's birth length and weight, placental weight, prematurity derived from gestational age, and presence of jaundice. RESULTS--Both pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 0, 95% confidence interval 0 to 0.71) and prematurity (0.31, 0.09 to 1.04) were inversely associated with incidence of prostate cancer. Among subjects born full term, placental weight, birth weight, and ponderal index (weight/height 3) showed non-significant positive associations with prostate cancer incidence, and stronger associations with mortality. CONCLUSION--Prenatal exposures that are likely correlates of pregnancy hormones and other growth factors are important in prostate carcinogenesis and influence the natural course as well as the occurrence of this cancer.
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