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Sökning: WFRF:(Adami Hans Olov) > (1995-1999) > (1996)

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1.
  • Ekbom, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Perinatal characteristics in relation to incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 0959-8138. ; 313:7053, s. 337-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that factors causing morbidity and mortality from prostate cancer may operate in utero. DESIGN--Matched case-control study of singleton men born between 1874 and 1946 at one hospital. SETTING--Uppsala University Hospital. SUBJECTS--250 patients with prostate cancer and 691 controls, including 80 patients who died from prostate cancer and their 196 matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mother's age at menarche, parity, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia before delivery, age at delivery and socioeconomic status; case or control's birth length and weight, placental weight, prematurity derived from gestational age, and presence of jaundice. RESULTS--Both pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 0, 95% confidence interval 0 to 0.71) and prematurity (0.31, 0.09 to 1.04) were inversely associated with incidence of prostate cancer. Among subjects born full term, placental weight, birth weight, and ponderal index (weight/height 3) showed non-significant positive associations with prostate cancer incidence, and stronger associations with mortality. CONCLUSION--Prenatal exposures that are likely correlates of pregnancy hormones and other growth factors are important in prostate carcinogenesis and influence the natural course as well as the occurrence of this cancer.
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2.
  • Helgesen, Fred, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in prostate cancer survival in Sweden, 1960 through 1988 : Evidence of increasing diagnosis of nonlethal tumors
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 88:17, s. 1216-1221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The incidence of prostate cancer has increased during the past 30 years but has been paralleled by increases in survival rates from this disease, despite the absence of documented major improvement in curative treatment. Since a high prevalence of microscopic prostate cancer has been observed in autopsied men and because many prostate cancers may never surface clinically, increased diagnostic activities might have led to increased detection of less aggressive tumors. PURPOSE: This study was conducted to elucidate whether the trends in prostate cancer incidence and patient survival may be due to increasing diagnoses of nonlethal tumors. METHODS: We analyzed a population-based cohort comprising all cases of prostate cancer (n = 80,901) detected in Sweden during the period of 1960 through 1988. Five hundred eighteen patients (0.64% of the total number) who could not be followed because of emigration or an incomplete national registration number were excluded. Observed and relative survival rates were calculated for the entire cohort of 80,383 assessable patients per 5-year age group in 5-year periods of diagnosis and according to diagnostic method and were compared between geographic areas with differences in incidence rates. To estimate the independent effects of these determinants, multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: For the 80,383 patients with complete follow-up, the 10- and 20-year observed survival rates were 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.2%-17.9%) and 3.5% (95% CI = 3.2%-3.7%), and the relative survival rates were 41.1% (95% CI = 40.3%-41.9%) and 28.6% (95% CI = 26.5%-30.1%), respectively. Relative survival rates improved markedly over time; 10-year relative survival rates increased from 29% (95% CI = 27%-31%) among case patients diagnosed in 1960 through 1964 to 45% (95% CI = 43%-46%) among those diagnosed in 1975 through 1979. Relative survival rates leveled off after about 18 years at 18% (95% CI = 15%-20%) among patients diagnosed in 1960 through 1964 and at 31% (95% CI = 28%-34%) among those diagnosed in 1970 through 1974. An even more favorable outlook was observed in those case patients diagnosed later. In areas with a high or low incidence of prostate cancer, the 10-year relative survival rates were 45% (95% CI = 44%-47%) and 36% (95% CI = 34%-38%), respectively. In the early 1960s, the calculated loss of life expectancy after diagnosis varied from about 68% (95% CI = 61%-75%) of the expected length of life in the youngest age group to about 48% (95% CI = 46%-50%) in the oldest age group. From 1960 through 1964 to 1985 through 1988, the loss of life expectancy decreased by more than 50% in all age groups. The differences in relative survival rates between age groups were small, with a gradual decrease in age groups more than 60-64 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the great temporal improvement and geographic variation in survival rates are quantitatively consistent, with likely increases in the rate of detection of nonlethal tumors. IMPLICATIONS: The increase in relative survival rates must be taken into consideration when evaluating the outcome of treatment of prostate cancer, since nonrandomized comparisons may be confounded by time trends. Diagnosis of nonlethal tumors raises concerns because the individual would suffer from the psychologic burden of a cancer diagnosis without any therapeutic benefit.
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3.
  • Holmberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • A search for recall bias in a case-control study of diet and breast cancer
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS UNITED KINGDOM. - 0300-5771. ; 25:2, s. 235-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. In retrospective studies of dietary habits and breast cancer risk, recall bias is a concern since diet has been publicized as a cause of breast cancer. Methods, In a case-control study of diet and breast cancer risk nested within a cohort of w
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4.
  • Lambe, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Malignant melanoma : reduced risk associated with early childbearing and multiparity
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Melanoma research. - 0960-8931 .- 1473-5636. ; 6:2, s. 147-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pigmentary changes during pregnancy and sex-specific differences in incidence patterns of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) suggest that sex hormones may be involved in the development of CMM. We explored possible associations between childbearing and the risk of CMM in a case-control study "nested' in a nation-wide cohort. A total of 4,779 incident cases of CMM in women aged 24-65 were compared with 23,888 individually age-matched controls. Delayed childbearing was associated with an increased risk of CMM, corresponding to approximately 16% per 5 years. Parous women had a significantly lower risk of CMM compared with nulliparous women; in univariate analysis there was an 8% reduction in risk for each additional birth (odds ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval = 0.89-0.95). In multivariate analyses the risk of CMM was best explained by a model including both age at first birth and parity. Age at first birth was the most important variable. Time since most recent birth was unrelated to risk of CMM. These findings indicate that early childbearing and multiparity reduce the risk of CMM. Conceivable explanations are hormonal changes induced by childbearing, enhanced immunologic activity via exposure to fetal antigens during pregnancy, or long-lasting effects of pregnancy-associated hyperpigmentation. Our results need confirmation in studies with proper adjustment for confounding; less sun exposure in young mothers and high parity women may represent an alternative explanation but is unlikely to explain entirely the twofold difference in risk found between extreme categories of age at first birth and parity.
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6.
  • Linet, Martha S., et al. (författare)
  • Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood brain tumors (Sweden)
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 7:4, s. 437-448
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Childhood brain tumors (CBT) include a diversity of rare neoplasms of largely unknown etiology. To assess possible maternal and perinatal risk factors for CBT according to subtype, we carried out a nested (within Swedish birth-cohorts, 1973-89) case-control study, utilizing data from the nationwide Birth Registry. We ascertained incident brain tumor cases through linkage of the nationwide Birth and Cancer Registries and randomly selected five living controls from the former, matching each case on gender and birthdate. There were 570 CBT cases, including 205 low grade astrocytomas, 58 high grade astrocytomas, 93 medulloblastomas, 54 ependymomas, and 160 'others.' Risks for all brain tumors combined were elevated in relation to: (i) three maternal exposures-oral contraceptives prior to conception (odds ratios [OR] = 1.6, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.8), use of narcotics (OR = 1.3, CI = 1.0-1.6), or penthrane (OR = 1.5, CI = 1.1-2.0) during delivery); (ii) characteristics of neonatal distress (a combined variable including low one-minute Apgar score, asphyxia [OR = 1.5, CI = 1.1-2.0]) or treatments for neonatal distress (use of supplemental oxygen, ventilated on mask, use of incubator, scalp vein infusion, feeding with a jejunal tube [OR = 1.6, CI = 0.9-2.6]); and (iii) neonatal infections (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.5-4.0). Higher subtype-specific risks, observed for a few risk factors, did not differ significantly from the risk estimates for all subtypes combined for the corresponding risk factors. Childhood brain tumors were not associated significantly with other maternal reproductive, lifestyle, or disease factors; perinatal pain, anesthetic medications, birth-related complications; or with birthweight, birth defects, or early neonatal diseases. These findings suggest several new leads, but only weak evidence of brain tumor subtype-specific differences.
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7.
  • Ljungman, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Amputation risk and survival after embolectomy for acute arterial ischaemia : Time trends in a defined Swedish population
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. - 1078-5884 .- 1532-2165. ; 11:2, s. 176-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcome of embolectomy over an 19 year period. METHODS: Time trends in the outcome of acute arterial thrombo-embolectomy of the extremities were analysed in a population-based cohort of 1190 patients operated on between 1965-83. RESULTS: A total of 262 (22%) initial amputations were performed. The limb salvage rates at 5 years postoperatively were lower between 1975-79 (61%) than between 1965-69 (81%). A proportional hazards model revealed a relative hazard (RH) of amputation of 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.3) for 1975-79 compared with 1965-69. Operation at any district hospital entailed a 70% higher risk of amputation (RH 1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.5) compared with the University hospital. The relative survival rate at 5 years postoperatively decreased towards the end of the study period (33% between 1975-79 compared with 43% between 1965-69). Younger age-groups had a considerably lower risk of death in the University hospital compared with the county and district hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the results in other hospital based reports no improvement in amputation or survival rates since 1965 could be demonstrated in this large series with no patient selection.
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8.
  • Nyrén, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and colorectal cancer: : A 20-year follow-up study of Swedish construction workers
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE. - NATL CANCER INSTITUTE. - 0027-8874. ; 88:18, s. 1302-1307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although cigarette smoking has consistently been shown to be positively related to the risk of adenomatous polyp development (benign neoplastic growth of epithelial tissue in the colon), most studies of cigarette smoking and the risk of colore
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9.
  • Thurfjell, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Breast size and mammographic pattern in relation to breast cancer risk
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer Prevention. - 0959-8278 .- 1473-5709. ; 5:1, s. 37-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relation of Wolfe's parenchymal patterns and radiographically-assessed breast size with breast cancer risk was evaluated in a population-based nested case-control study in Uppsala, Sweden. All women who attended a mammographic screening programme in Uppsala county starting in 1988 have been followed for the occurrence of breast cancer through 1993. The analysis was based on 295 cases and 589 age-matched controls, whose mammograms were blindly evaluated for parenchymal pattern and breast size. Women with P2 or DY pattern had a significantly elevated risk of breast cancer compared with women with N1 or P1 (OR = 2.09; 95% CI = 1.52-2.86). There was an inverse association of breast size with breast cancer risk, which disappeared after adjusting for parenchymal pattern, because breasts of smaller size tended to have high-risk parenchymal patterns. It is concluded that in Swedish women, and perhaps in Caucasian women in general, small breast size is associated with increasing breast risk through its association with high-risk parenchymal pattern. This is in contrast to the fact that Asian women, who in general have breasts of smaller size, have low prevalence of high-risk parenchymal pattern as well as low rates of breast cancer.
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10.
  • Thörn, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of late mortality in cutaneous malignant melanoma : A population-based study in Sweden
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 67:1, s. 38-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We determined risk factors for late deaths from cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) based on clinical characteristics at diagnosis, initial surgical treatment, histopathologic features of the primary tumor and type of eventual recurrences during follow-up. We examined deaths from CMM 8 or more completed years after the initial diagnosis in a case-control study nested in a nationwide cohort comprising all 8,838 patients with CMM diagnosed in Sweden during 1960-1978 with complete follow-up through 1986. There were 285 case patients and 285 control patients, individually matched by sex, age and follow-up time. Conditional logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (OR) as estimates of the relative risk. The risk of late mortality increased stepwise, almost 19-fold, with increasing tumor thickness from < or = 0.75 to > or = 7.00 mm. Besides the thickest tumors (> or = 7.00 mm), those of intermediate thickness (1.50-2.49 mm) had the highest risk (OR 8.5). After adjustment for tumor thickness, non-radical primary surgical treatment increased the risk of late mortality almost 3-fold while prophylactic lymph node dissection entailed a significantly reduced risk of late mortality (OR 0.5); the histopathologic features increasing level of invasion and vertical growth phase also remained significantly associated with a poor outcome. In a multivariate model, non-radical primary surgical treatment, prophylactic lymph node dissection, vertical growth phase, level of invasion and lymphocyte reaction were independent predictors of late mortality.
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