SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Adami Hans Olov) srt2:(1995-1999);srt2:(1999)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Adami Hans Olov) > (1995-1999) > (1999)

  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Liljegren, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • 10-year Results After Sector Resection With or Without Postoperative Radiotherapy for Stage I Breast Cancer : a Randomized Trial
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 17:8, s. 2326-2333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To study the long-term effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy after sector resection for breast cancer in a randomized trial in which mammography is a major pathway to diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred eighty-one women with a unifocal breast cancer < or = 20 mm in diameter on the preoperative mammogram and without histopathologic signs of axillary metastases were treated by sector resection plus axillary dissection. Of these patients, 184 women were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy to the breast (XRT group), and 197 women received no further treatment (non-XRT group). RESULTS: The local recurrence rate was 8.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9% to 13.1%) in the XRT group and 24.0% (95% CI, 17.6% to 30.4%) in the non-XRT group (P =.0001). Survival free from regional and distant recurrence was 83. 3% in the XRT group (95% CI, 77.5% to 89.1%) and 80.0% in the non-XRT group (95% CI, 73.9% to 86.1%) (P =.23). Overall survival was 77.5% in the XRT group (95% CI, 70.9% to 84.1%) and 78% in the non-XRT group (95% CI, 71.7% to 84.3%) (P =.99). A subgroup analysis suggested that women older than 55 years of age without comedo or lobular carcinomas had a low risk of local recurrence of 6.1% (95% CI, 0.1% to 9.1%) in the XRT-group and 11.0% (4.0% to 18.0%) in the non-XRT group (P =.16). CONCLUSION: Sector resection plus radiotherapy resulted in an absolute reduction in local recurrence of 16% at 10 years compared with surgery alone. Women older than 55 years of age without comedo or lobular carcinomas may have a low risk of local recurrence. Postoperative radiotherapy was not shown to reduce distant recurrences or improve overall survival.
  •  
2.
  • Akre, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in relation to testicular-cancer risk : a nested case-control study
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 82:1, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An infectious etiology of testicular cancer has been suggested. We have evaluated seroreactivity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in relation to testicular-cancer risk in a case-control study, nested within a cohort of prospectively collected serum specimens from 293,692 individuals. For each of 81 cases of testicular cancer identified, 3 controls were randomly selected from the cohort. Serum IgG antibody titers against CMV and EBV were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunofluorescence methods. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained from conditional logistic-regression models. No association was found between CMV positivity and testicular cancer overall (OR = 1.08; 95% confidence interval 0.60-1.94); risk for testicular seminoma was increased among CMV seropositive [OR = 1.70 (0.80-3.59)], whereas seropositivity was associated with decreased risk for testicular non-seminoma [OR = 0.54 (0.19-1.56)] (p for heterogeneity, 0.09). For EBV, the risk for testicular cancer was increased among individuals seropositive for viral capsid antigen (VCA) [OR = 2.74 (0.62-12.12)]. The results lend some support to the hypothesis of an infectious etiology, and we propose that future studies should take into account age at infection.
  •  
3.
  • Frisch, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • Tobacco smoking as a risk factor in anal carcinoma : an antiestrogenic mechanism?
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 91:8, s. 708-715
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus-associated anogenital carcinogenesis depends on poorly defined cofactors. Smoking was recently suggested to increase the risk of anal cancer more in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. Thus, we used our population-based anal cancer case-control study in Denmark and Sweden to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Our study included 417 patients (324 women and 93 men) who were diagnosed with anal cancer (84% invasive cancer) from 1991 through 1994; it also included five patients diagnosed in 1995. Two control groups were used: 1) 554 population control subjects (349 women and 205 men) and 2) 534 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma (343 women and 191 men). Odds ratios (ORs), calculated from logistic regression analyses, were used as measures of relative risk. All P values are two-sided. RESULTS: Compared with the risk for lifelong nonsmokers, the risk of anal cancer was high among premenopausal women who currently smoked tobacco (multivariate OR = 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4-12.7) and increased linearly by 6.7% per pack-year smoked (one pack-year is equivalent to one pack of cigarettes smoked per day for 1 year) (P for trend <.001). Smoking was not statistically significantly associated with anal cancer risk in postmenopausal women or men. Women whose menstrual periods started late were at high risk (multivariate OR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.8-7.3, for > or = 17 years of age versus < or = 12 years of age; P for trend <.001), and body mass index (weight in kg/[height in m]2) was inversely associated with risk among women (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Because the risk of anal cancer associated with smoking was restricted to premenopausal women and because higher risk was associated with late menarche and lean body composition, female sex hormones may be a factor in anal cancer development in women. Since the anal mucosa is an estrogen-sensitive area, we hypothesize an antiestrogenic mechanism of action for smoking in anal carcinogenesis.
  •  
4.
  • Frisch, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • Variants of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal and perianal skin and their relation to human papillomaviruses
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 59:3, s. 753-757
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-risk types of human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) may be a necessary cause in cervical cancer and in some subtype of anal, vulvar, and penile cancers. Large studies aimed at characterizing hrHPV-associated and non-hrHPV-associated subtypes of anal carcinomas are, however, lacking. We searched for human papillomavirus type 16 and 13 other hrHPVs in tumor tissue by PCR and performed a systematic histological evaluation of specimens from 386 patients with anal cancer (86% invasive; 302 women and 84 men). Cancers in women and homosexual men were more often hrHPV positive (P < 0.01) and located in the anal canal (P < or = 0.01) than were cancers in heterosexual men. In both women and men, anal canal cancers contained hrHPV clearly more often than did perianal skin cancers, and increasing hrHPV positivity was seen with higher localization in the anal canal. Indeed, 95 and 83% of cancers involving the anal canal in women and men, respectively, were hrHPV positive versus 80 and 28% of perianal skin cancers (P-trend < 0.001). Basaloid feature, adjacent anal intraepithelial neoplasia, poor or absent keratinization, and a predominance of small or medium neoplastic cells were all strongly positively associated with hrHPV status. Like cancer of the uterine cervix, the development of cancer of the anal canal may require infection with hrHPV, whereas a dual etiology of perianal skin cancers bears parallels to vulvar and penile cancers.
  •  
5.
  • Holmberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • On the scientific inference from clinical trials
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice. - 1356-1294 .- 1365-2753. ; 5:2, s. 157-162
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have not been able to describe clearly how we generalize findings from a study to our own 'everyday patients'. This difficulty is not surprising, since generalization deals with how empirical observations are related to the growth of scientific knowledge, which is a major philosophical problem. An argument, sometimes used to discard evidence from a trial, is that the patient sample was too selected and therefore not 'representative' enough for the results to be meaningful for generalization. In this paper, we discuss issues of representativeness and generalizability. Other authors have shown that generalization cannot only depend on statistical inference. Then, how do randomized clinical trials contribute to the growth of knowledge? We discuss three aspects of the randomized clinical trial (Mant 1999), First, the trial is an empirical experiment set up to study the intervention on the question as specifically and as much in isolation from other -- biasing and confounding -- factors as possible (Rothman & Greenland 1998). Second, the trial is set up to challenge our prevailing hypotheses (or prejudices) and the trial is above all a help in error elimination (Popper 1992). Third, we need to learn to see new, unexpected and thought-provoking patterns in the data from a trial. Point one -- and partly point two -- refers to the paradigm of the controlled experiment in scientific method. How much a study contributes to our knowledge, with respect to points two and three, relates to its originality. In none of these respects is the representativeness of the patients, or the clinical situations, crucial for judging the study and its possible inferences. However, we also discuss that the biological domain of disease that was studied in a particular trial has to be taken into account. Thus, the inference drawn from a clinical study is not only a question of statistical generalization, but must include a jump from the world of experiences into the world of reason, assessment and theoretical judgement.
  •  
6.
  • Lipworth, L., et al. (författare)
  • Maternal pregnancy hormone levels in an area with a high incidence (Boston, USA) and in an area with a low incidence (Shanghai, China) of breast cancer
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 79:1, s. 7-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Characteristics probably associated with the fetal hormonal milieu have recently been shown to increase (birth size indicators, prematurity, neonatal jaundice) or decrease (pregnancy toxaemia) breast cancer risk in the female offspring. However, it is unknown whether differences in pregnancy hormone levels may contribute to the marked geographical variation in breast cancer incidence. We have compared, in a highly standardized manner, pregnancy hormone levels in a population with high incidence and one with low incidence of breast cancer. Three hundred and four pregnant Caucasian women in Boston and 334 pregnant Chinese women in Shanghai were enrolled from March 1994 to October 1995. Levels of oestradiol, oestriol, prolactin, progesterone, human growth hormone, albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in maternal blood at weeks 16 and 27 of gestation and compared between the two study sites using non-parametric Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. Demographical, anthropometrical and pregnancy characteristics were ascertained through interview, and relevant variables concerning delivery and the newborn were abstracted from medical records and paediatric charts. During the first visit, median serum levels of all studied hormones were statistically significant, and in most instances substantially, higher among Chinese women, who have a low incidence of breast cancer, compared with American women, who have a high incidence of breast cancer. An analogous pattern was evident during the second visit, although the relative differences tended to be smaller. Further research is needed to identify lifestyle or other exogenous determinants of pregnancy hormone levels, as well as possible mechanisms by which they may influence carcinogenic processes in the breast and possibly other organs.
  •  
7.
  •  
8.
  • Ylitalo, Nathalie, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and oral contraceptives as risk factors for cervical carcinoma in situ
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 81:3, s. 357-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is probably a necessary but definitely not a sufficient cause of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear which factors, in addition to HPV, are important for the development of cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions. To address this issue, we conducted a case-control study nested in a population-based cohort consisting of women participating in cytological screening in one Swedish county, any time during 1969 through 1995. Detailed information on sexual practice, smoking habits and oral contraceptive (OC) use were collected through telephone interviews with 422 case patients diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in situ and 422 control subjects. All cytological smears were analyzed for presence of HPV 16/18 by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. Odds ratios (OR) were used as measures of relative risk. After multivariate adjustment, a 2-fold higher risk was observed among current smokers compared with never smokers [OR 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.32-2.85)], an association apparently confined to women younger than 45 years. Current use of OCs was associated with a 4-fold increased risk overall (OR 3.64; 95% CI 1.91-6.93) with a monotonic increase with increasing duration of use (p for trend < 0.001). The number of sexual partners was significantly, positively associated with risk among HPV 16/18-negative (p for trend < 0.005) but not among HPV 16/18-positive women. Our data confirm the association between smoking and cervical carcinoma in situ, which might be age-dependent. Our results further indicate a relation with OC use and the risk for cervical carcinoma in situ.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy