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Sökning: WFRF:(Airoldi Luisa)

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1.
  • Peluso, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • Bulky DNA adducts, 4-aminobiphenyl-haemoglobin adducts and diet in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) prospective study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge University Press. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 100:3, s. 489-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In contrast to some extensively examined food mutagens, for example, aflatoxins, N-nitrosamines and heterocyclic amines, some other food contaminants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other aromatic compounds, have received less attention. Therefore, exploring the relationships between dietary habits and the levels of biomarkers related to exposure to aromatic compounds is highly relevant. We have investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort the association between dietary items (food groups and nutrients) and aromatic DNA adducts and 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts. Both types of adducts are biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and possibly of cancer risk, and were measured, respectively, in leucocytes and erythrocytes of 1086 (DNA adducts) and 190 (Hb adducts) non-smokers. An inverse. statistically significant, association has been found between DNA adduct levels and dietary fibre intake (P=0.02), vitamin E (P =0.04) and alcohol (P=0.03) but not with other nutrients or food groups. Also, an inverse association between fibre and fruit intake, and BMI and 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts (P=0.03, 0.04, and 0.03 respectively) was observed. After multivariate regression analysis these inverse correlations remained statistically significant, except for the correlation adducts v. fruit intake. The present study suggests that fibre intake in the usual range can modify the level of DNA or Hb aromatic adducts, but Such role seems to be quantitatively modest. Fibres could reduce the formation of DNA adducts in different manners, by diluting potential food mutagens and carcinogens in the gastrointestinal tract, by speeding their transit through the colon and by binding carcinogenic substances.
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2.
  • Gallo, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Second-hand Smoke, Cotinine Levels, and Risk of Circulatory Mortality in a Large Cohort Study of Never-Smokers.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Epidemiology. - 1044-3983 .- 1531-5487. ; 21, s. 207-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:: Exposure to second-hand smoke has been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Our aim was to investigate the risk of circulatory death associated with exposure to second-hand smoke in never-smokers in a very large prospective study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A secondary aim was to use cotinine levels for cross-validating self-reported second-hand smoke exposure. METHODS:: Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the risk of death due to circulatory causes associated with second-hand smoke exposure in 135,233 never-smokers. Exposure to second-hand smoke was assessed through a questionnaire at enrollment and then validated against plasma cotinine measurements in a subsample. RESULTS:: Study participants who reported second-hand smoke exposure at home had higher cotinine levels (median plasma cotinine concentration in exposed = 0.82 mug/L; in those unexposed 0.02 mug/L). Second-hand smoke exposure at home was associated with an increased risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.90]), all circulatory diseases (1.28 [0.98-1.69]), and coronary heart disease (1.31 [0.83-2.08]) after adjustment for age, sex, education, physical activity, and body mass index. Dose-response relationships were observed between exposure to second-hand smoke at home and risk of circulatory death (HR per each additional hour/d = 1.25 [1.04-1.50]). Having a partner who smokes more than 30 cigarettes per day considerably increased the risk of a circulatory death (2.94 [1.11-7.78]). Second-hand smoke exposure at home was not associated with total mortality (1.03 [0.93-1.13]). DISCUSSION:: Exposure to second-hand smoke at home (as confirmed by plasma cotinine levels) increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality.
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4.
  • Pastorelli, Roberta, et al. (författare)
  • Proteome analysis for the identification of in vivo estrogen-regulated proteins in bone.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Proteomics. - 1615-9853. ; 5:18, s. 4936-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen deficiency results in a reduced bone mass, which can be prevented by treatment with estrogens. This study used a proteomic approach for the first time to obtain a global perspective of estrogens' effects on whole-bone proteins. Bone proteome profiles were examined in three groups of mice: (1) sham-operated with normal ovarian functions, (2) ovariectomised and (3) ovariectomised with estrogen replacement therapy. Bone proteins extracted from the humerus were separated by 2-DE and visualised by CBB colloidal staining. Spot detection and quantification was done by image analysis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by MS and database search, using peptide mass fingerprint and peptide sequence analysis. Differential expression analysis in the three experimental groups showed significant changes for 14 proteins. These included proteins related to bone metabolism, cytoskeleton components and energy metabolic pathways. Our data suggest that some proteins related to cytoskeleton and to energy pathways, such as tropomyosins, aconitase 2 and enolase beta, might be new molecular targets responsive to the effects of estrogen. Differentially expressed proteins identified in this model may offer a useful starting point for elucidating novel aspects of the pleiotropic effects of estrogens on bone.
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6.
  • Vineis, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health. - BioMed Central. - 1476-069X. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods: We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results: The proportion of lung cancers in never-and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion: We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10-20 ug/m(3), whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m(3) would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5-7% is likely to be an underestimate. Overall, our prospective study draws attention to the need for strict legislation concerning the quality of air in Europe.
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