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Sökning: WFRF:(Akerstedt Torbjorn) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Ahlström, Christer, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of daylight versus darkness on driver sleepiness : A driving simulator study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0962-1105 .- 1365-2869.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Driver sleepiness studies are often carried out with alert drivers during daytime and sleep-deprived drivers during night-time. This design results in a mixture of different factors (e.g. circadian effects, homeostatic effects, light conditions) that may confound the results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 ± 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove on a rural road. A 2 × 2 design was used with the conditions daylight versus darkness, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived). The results show that light condition had an independent effect on the sleepiness variables. The subjective sleepiness measured by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, lateral position more left-oriented, speed lower, electroencephalogram alpha and theta higher, and blink durations were longer during darkness. The number of line crossings did not change significantly with light condition. The day/night condition had profound effects on most sleepiness indicators while controlling for light condition. The number of line crossings was higher during night driving, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, blink durations were longer and speed was lower. There were no significant interactions, indicating that light conditions have an additive effect on sleepiness. In conclusion, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and blink durations increase primarily with sleep deprivation, but also as an effect of darkness. Line crossings are mainly driven by the need for sleep and the reduced alertness at the circadian nadir. Lane position is, however, more determined by light conditions than by sleepiness.
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2.
  • Miley-Åkerstedt, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Criteria for self-reported quantitative sleep characteristics of individuals who sought medical help for disturbed sleep - a survey of a representative sample of the Swedish population
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature and Science of Sleep. - 1179-1608. ; 10, s. 295-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The public often seeks rule-of-thumb criteria for good or poor sleep, with a particular emphasis on sleep duration, sleep latency, and the number of awakenings each night. However, very few criteria are available. Aim: The present study sought to identify such criteria. Methods: Whether or not a person has sought medical help for sleep problems was selected as an indicator of poor sleep. The group that was studied constituted a representative sample of the general Swedish population (N=1,128), with a response rate of 72.8%. Results: Logistic regression analysis, with an adjustment for age and gender, showed an increased OR for a weekday sleep duration of <= 6 hour, (OR >2, and for <5 hour: OR >6). For weekend sleep, the value was <= 6 hour (OR >2). For awakenings per night, the critical value was >= 2 (OR >2, and for awakenings: OR >9), and for a sleep latency the critical value was >= 30 minutes (OR >2, and for >= 45 minutes: OR >6). Adding difficulties falling asleep and early morning awakening (considered qualitative because of the reflected difficulty), led to the elimination of all the quantitative variables, except for the number of awakenings. The addition of negative effects on daytime functioning and sleep being a big problem resulted in the elimination of all the other predictors except age. Conclusion: It was concluded that weekday sleep <= 6 hour, >= 2 awakenings/night, and a sleep latency of >= 30 minutes, can function as criteria for poor sleep, but that qualitative sleep variables take over the role of quantitative ones, probably because they represent the integration of quantitative indicators of sleep.
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3.
  • Schwarz, Johanna F. A., et al. (författare)
  • Age affects sleep microstructure more than sleep macrostructure
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research. - 0962-1105 .- 1365-2869. ; 26:3, s. 277-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is well known that the quantity and quality of physiological sleep changes across age. However, so far the effect of age on sleep microstructure has been mostly addressed in small samples. The current study examines the effect of age on several measures of sleep macro- and microstructure in 211 women (22–71 years old) of the ‘Sleep and Health in Women’ study for whom ambulatory polysomnography was registered. Older age was associated with significantly lower fast spindle (effect size f2 = 0.32) and K-complex density (f2 = 0.19) during N2 sleep, as well as slow-wave activity (log) in N3 sleep (f2 = 0.21). Moreover, total sleep time (f2 = 0.10), N3 sleep (min) (f2 = 0.10), rapid eye movement sleep (min) (f2 = 0.11) and sigma (log) (f2 = 0.05) and slow-wave activity (log) during non-rapid eye movement sleep (f2 = 0.09) were reduced, and N1 sleep (f2 = 0.03) was increased in older age. No significant effects of age were observed on slow spindle density, rapid eye movement density and beta power (log) during non-rapid eye movement sleep. In conclusion, effect sizes indicate that traditional sleep stage scoring may underestimate age-related changes in sleep.
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4.
  • Watling, Christopher N., et al. (författare)
  • Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 0962-1105 .- 1365-2869. ; 25:2, s. 241-247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective sleepiness as well as simulated driving performance. In total, 36 regular shift workers drove a high-fidelity moving base simulator on a simulated road with rumble strips installed at the shoulder and centre line after a working a full night shift. The results show that, on average, the first rumble strip occurred after 20 min of driving, with subsequent hits occurring 10 min later, with the last three occurring approximately every 5 min thereafter. Specifically, it was found that the first rumble strip hit reduced physiological sleepiness; however, subsequent hits did not increase alertness. Moreover, the results also demonstrate that increased subjective sleepiness levels, via the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, were associated with a greater probability of hitting a rumble strip. The present results suggest that sleepiness is very resilient to even strongly arousing stimuli, with physiological and subjective sleepiness increasing over the duration of the drive, despite the interference caused by rumble strips.
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5.
  • Åkerstedt, Torbjörn, et al. (författare)
  • Women with both sleep problems and snoring show objective impairment of sleep
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Sleep Medicine. - 1389-9457 .- 1878-5506. ; 51, s. 80-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Combined insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea has been the focus of considerable research with respect to its health effects. A related issue is whether sleep disturbances in combination with snoring might exert effects on objective sleep variables in the non-clinical general population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the polysomnographical characteristics of individuals who had sought medical help for both disturbed sleep and for snoring. No previous work of this type has been carried out. Method: For this study we used a representative set of data of 384 women with one night of in-home PSG. We identified those individuals who had sought medical help for sleep problems (SL), individuals that had sought help for snoring (SN), as well as those that had sought help for either both (Combined), or for neither (Control). Results: Our results yielded an N of 46, 16, 21, and 301 individuals, respectively. A one-factor analysis of variance showed significant main effects on N1% (F = 10.2, p < 0.001), N3% (F = 2.7, p < 0.05), AHI/h (F = 5.5, p < 0.001), and a delta power measure (F = 3.8, p < 0.05). The combined group showed significantly higher levels than the other groups for N1% (29% vs < 21%), AHI/h (19/h vs < 10/h) and lower levels for N3%, and a measure of delta power. Reported sleep quality measures did not show the same pattern, since the highest/lowest value were found for either the group presenting snoring alone or sleep problems alone. Conclusion: We concluded that individuals who had sought help for both insomnia and snoring showed impaired sleep in terms of PSG and that this was not reflected in ratings of sleep or health. This suggests that simultaneous sleep disturbances and snoring may potentiate each other to cause impaired sleep, yet the mechanism still needs to be elucidated.
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6.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 112, s. 127-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.
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7.
  • Anund, Anna, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. - : SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL WORK ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH. - 0355-3140 .- 1795-990X. ; 44:1, s. 88-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.
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8.
  • Barck-Holst, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced working hours and stress in the Swedish social services : A longitudinal study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Social Work. - 0020-8728 .- 1461-7234. ; 60:4, s. 897-913
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stress has been reported among Swedish social workers for over a decade. Survey data from a longitudinal quasi-experimental trial in the public sector of reduced working hours, with a proportional decrease in workload and retained full pay, were used to examine the effect on stress, symptoms of Exhaustion syndrome, psychosocial work characteristics and work-life balance in social workers. Reduced working hours had a positive effect on restorative sleep, stress, memory difficulties, negative emotion, sleepiness, fatigue and exhaustion both on workdays and weekends; on sleep quality on weekends; and on demands, instrumental manager support and work intrusion on private life.
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9.
  • Lindsäter, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Stress : A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. - 0033-3190 .- 1423-0348. ; 87:5, s. 296-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prolonged exposure to stress can lead to substantial suffering, impairment and societal costs. However, access to psychological treatment is limited. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) can be effective in reducing symptoms of stress, but little is known of its effects in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for patients suffering from chronic stress, operationalized as adjustment disorder (AD) and exhaustion disorder (ED). Methods: A total of 100 adults diagnosed with AD or ED were randomly assigned to a 12-week ICBT (n = 50) or waitlist control condition (n = 50). Primary outcome was the level of perceived stress (PSS). Secondary outcomes included several mental health symptom domains as well as functional impairment and work ability. All outcomes were assessed at baseline, after treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. The study was preregistered at Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02540317. Results: Compared to the control condition, patients in the ICBT group made large and significant improvements on the PSS (d = 1.09) and moderate to large improvements in secondary symptom domains. Effects were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. There was no significant between-group effect on functional impairment or work ability. Conclusions: A relatively short ICBT is indicated to be effective in reducing stress-related symptoms in a clinical sample of patients with AD and ED, and has the potential to substantially increase treatment accessibility. Results must be replicated, and further research is needed to understand the relationship between symptom reduction, functional impairment and work ability.
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10.
  • Åkerstedt, Torbjorn, et al. (författare)
  • Short sleep-poor sleep? A polysomnographic study in a large population-based sample of women
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research. - 0962-1105 .- 1365-2869. ; 28:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a lack of studies on the association between total sleep time (TST) and other polysomnographical parameters. A key question is whether a short sleep is an expression of habitual short sleep, or whether it reflects temporary impairment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between TST and amount of sleep stages and sleep continuity measures, in a large population-based sample of women (n = 385), sleeping at home in a normal daily life setting. The results show that sleep efficiency, N1 (min), N2 (min), REM (min), REM% and proportion of long sleep segments, increased with increasing TST, whereas the number of awakenings/hr, the number of arousals/hr, N1% and REM intensity decreased. In addition, longer sleep was more associated with TST being perceived as of usual duration and with better subjective sleep quality. TST was not associated with habitual reported sleep duration. It was concluded that short TST of a recorded sleep in a real-life context may be an indicator of poor objective sleep quality for that particular sleep episode. Because individuals clearly perceived this reduction, it appears that self-reports of poor sleep quality often may be seen as indicators of poor sleep quality. It is also concluded that PSG-recorded sleep duration does not reflect habitual reported sleep duration in the present real-life context.
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