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Sökning: WFRF:(Al Sarraj Safa) > (2008-2009)

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1.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of alpha-synuclein pathology : a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. - 0022-3069 .- 1554-6578. ; 67:2, s. 125-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine the reliability of assessment of alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive (alphaS-IR) structures by neuropathologists, 28 evaluators from 17 centers of BrainNet Europe examined current methods and reproducibility of alphaS-IR evaluation using a tissue microarray (TMA) technique. Tissue microarray blocks were constructed of samples from the participating centers that contained alphaS-IR structures. Slides from these blocks were stained in each center and assessed for neuronal perikaryal inclusions, neurites, and glial cytoplasmic inclusions. The study was performed in 2 phases. First, the TMA slides were stained with the antibody of the center's choice. In this phase, 59% of the sections were of good or acceptable quality, and 4 of 9 antibodies used performed consistently. Differences in interpretation and categorization of alphaS-IR structures, however, led to differing results between the laboratories. Prior to the second phase, the neuropathologists participated in a training session on the evaluation of alphaS-IR structures. Based on the results of the first phase, selected antibodies using designated antigen retrieval methods were then applied to TMA slides in the second phase. When the designated methods of both staining and evaluation were applied, all 26 subsequently stained TMA sections evaluated were of good/acceptable quality, and a high level of concordance in the assessment of the presence or absence of specific alphaS-IR structures was achieved. A semiquantitative assessment of alphaS-IR neuronal perikaryal inclusions yielded agreements ranging from 49% to 82%, with best concordance in cortical core samples. These results suggest that rigorous methodology and dichotomized assessment (i.e. determining the presence or absence of alphaS-IR) should be applied, and that semiquantitative assessment can be recommended only for the cortical samples. Moreover, the study demonstrates that there are limitations in the scoring of alphaS-IR structures.
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2.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of beta-amyloid deposits in human brain : a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 117:3, s. 309-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • beta-Amyloid (A-beta) related pathology shows a range of lesions which differ both qualitatively and quantitatively. Pathologists, to date, mainly focused on the assessment of both of these aspects but attempts to correlate the findings with clinical phenotypes are not convincing. It has been recently proposed in the same way as iota and alpha synuclein related lesions, also A-beta related pathology may follow a temporal evolution, i.e. distinct phases, characterized by a step-wise involvement of different brain-regions. Twenty-six independent observers reached an 81% absolute agreement while assessing the phase of A-beta, i.e. phase 1 = deposition of A-beta exclusively in neocortex, phase 2 = additionally in allocortex, phase 3 = additionally in diencephalon, phase 4 = additionally in brainstem, and phase 5 = additionally in cerebellum. These high agreement rates were reached when at least six brain regions were evaluated. Likewise, a high agreement (93%) was reached while assessing the absence/presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and the type of CAA (74%) while examining the six brain regions. Of note, most of observers failed to detect capillary CAA when it was only mild and focal and thus instead of type 1, type 2 CAA was diagnosed. In conclusion, a reliable assessment of A-beta phase and presence/absence of CAA was achieved by a total of 26 observers who examined a standardized set of blocks taken from only six anatomical regions, applying commercially available reagents and by assessing them as instructed. Thus, one may consider rating of A-beta-phases as a diagnostic tool while analyzing subjects with suspected Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because most of these blocks are currently routinely sampled by the majority of laboratories, assessment of the A-beta phase in AD is feasible even in large scale retrospective studies.
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3.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Staging of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease : a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Brain Pathology. - 1015-6305 .- 1750-3639. ; 18:4, s. 484-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been recognized that molecular classifications will form the basis for neuropathological diagnostic work in the future. Consequently, in order to reach a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau (HP-tau) and beta-amyloid protein in brain tissue must be unequivocal. In addition, the stepwise progression of pathology needs to be assessed. This paper deals exclusively with the regional assessment of AD-related HP-tau pathology. The objective was to provide straightforward instructions to aid in the assessment of AD-related immunohistochemically (IHC) detected HP-tau pathology and to test the concordance of assessments made by 25 independent evaluators. The assessment of progression in 7-microm-thick sections was based on assessment of IHC labeled HP-tau immunoreactive neuropil threads (NTs). Our results indicate that good agreement can be reached when the lesions are substantial, i.e., the lesions have reached isocortical structures (stage V-VI absolute agreement 91%), whereas when only mild subtle lesions were present the agreement was poorer (I-II absolute agreement 50%). Thus, in a research setting when the extent of lesions is mild, it is strongly recommended that the assessment of lesions should be carried out by at least two independent observers.
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4.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Staging/typing of Lewy body related alpha-synuclein pathology : a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 117:6, s. 635-652
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When 22 members of the BrainNet Europe (BNE) consortium assessed 31 cases with alpha-synuclein (alphaS) immunoreactive (IR) pathology applying the consensus protocol described by McKeith and colleagues in 2005, the inter-observer agreement was 80%, being lowest in the limbic category (73%). When applying the staging protocol described by Braak and colleagues in 2003, agreement was only 65%, and in some cases as low as 36%. When modifications of these strategies, i.e., McKeith's protocol by Leverenz and colleagues from 2009, Braak's staging by Müller and colleagues from 2005 were applied then the agreement increased to 78 and 82%, respectively. In both of these modifications, a reduced number of anatomical regions/blocks are assessed and still in a substantial number of cases, the inter-observer agreement differed significantly. Over 80% agreement in both typing and staging of alphaS pathology could be achieved when applying a new protocol, jointly designed by the BNE consortium. The BNE-protocol assessing alphaS-IR lesions in nine blocks offered advantages over the previous modified protocols because the agreement between the 22 observers was over 80% in most cases. Furthermore, in the BNE-protocol, the alphaS pathology is assessed as being present or absent and thus the quality of staining and the assessment of the severity of alphaS-IR pathology do not alter the inter-observer agreement, contrary to other assessment strategies. To reach these high agreement rates an entity of amygdala-predominant category was incorporated. In conclusion, here we report a protocol for assessing alphaS pathology that can achieve a high inter-observer agreement for both the assignment to brainstem, limbic, neocortical and amygdala-predominant categories of synucleinopathy and the Braak stages.
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5.
  • Bell, Jeanne E, et al. (författare)
  • Management of a twenty-first century brain bank : experience in the BrainNet Europe consortium.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 115:5, s. 497-507
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Collections of human postmortem brains gathered in brain banks have underpinned many significant developments in the understanding of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and continue to support current research. Unfortunately, the worldwide decline in postmortem examinations has had an adverse effect on research tissue procurement, particularly from control cases (non-diseased brains). Recruitment to brain donor programmes partially addresses this problem and has been successful for dementing and neurodegenerative conditions. However, the collection of brains from control subjects, particularly from younger individuals, and from CNS disorders of sudden onset, remains a problem. Brain banks need to adopt additional strategies to circumvent such shortages. The establishment of brain bank networks allows data on, and access to, control cases and unusual CNS disorders to be shared, providing a larger resource for potential users. For the brain banks themselves, inclusion in a network fosters the sharing of protocols and development of best practice and quality control. One aspect of this collective experience concerns brain bank management, excellence in which is a prerequisite not only for gaining the trust of potential donors and of society in general, but also for ensuring equitable distribution to researchers of high quality tissue samples. This review addresses the legal, ethical and governance issues, tissue quality, and health and safety aspects of brain bank management and data management in a network, as well as the needs of users, brain bank staffing, donor programs, funding issues and public relations. Recent developments in research methodology present new opportunities for researchers who use brain tissue samples, but will require brain banks to adopt more complex protocols for tissue collection, preparation and storage, with inevitable cost implications for the future.
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6.
  • Kovacs, Gabor G., et al. (författare)
  • Mixed brain pathologies in dementia : the BrainNet Europe consortium experience
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 26:4, s. 343-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Dementia results from heterogeneous diseases of the brain. Mixed disease forms are increasingly recognized. METHODS: We performed a survey within brain banks of BrainNet Europe to estimate the proportion of mixed disease forms underlying dementia and age- and gender-specific influences. RESULTS: Data collected in 9 centres from 3,303 individuals were analysed. The proportion of patients with mixed diagnoses among all cases with Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular pathology (VP), argyrophilic grain dementia (AGD), and synucleinopathies, such as Lewy body dementia (LBD), Parkinson disease (PD) and synuclein pathology only in the amygdala, was 53.3%. Mixed pathology was more frequently reported with LBD, PD, AGD, and VP than with AD. The percentage of mixed diagnoses for AGD and VP significantly differed between centres. In patients younger than 75 years, synucleinopathies, and pure forms of AD, VP, and AGD were more frequent in men. Above 75 years of age, more women had pure AD and pure AGD. CONCLUSIONS: The most obvious neuropathological alteration should not terminate the diagnostic procedure since copathology is likely to be found. Neuropathological interpretation of AGD and VP has not been sufficiently established in a consensus. Pure forms of synucleinopathies are unlikely sole substrates for dementia.
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7.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Inter-laboratory comparison of neuropathological assessments of beta-amyloid protein : a study of the BrainNet Europe consortium.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 115:5, s. 533-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid-beta-protein (Abeta) is generally assessed by neuropathologists in diagnostics. This BrainNet Europe ( http://www.brainnet-europe.org/ ) (15 centres and 26 participants) study was carried out to investigate the reliability of such an assessment. In the first part of this trial, tissue microarray sections were stained with the antibody of each centre's choice. Reflecting the reality, seven antibodies and a plethora of pretreatment strategies were used. Ninety-two percent of the stainings were of good/acceptable quality and the estimation of presence of Abeta aggregates yielded good results. However, a poor agreement was reached particularly regarding quantitative (density) and qualitative (diffuse/cored plaques) results. During a joint meeting, the clone 4G8 was determined to label best the fleecy/diffuse plaques, and thus, this clone and the formic acid pretreatment technique were selected for the second part of this study. Subsequently, all stained sections were of good/acceptable quality and again a high level of concordance of the dichotomized (presence/absence) assessment of plaques and CAA was achieved. However, even when only one antibody was used, the type of Abeta-aggregates (diffuse/cored), type of vessel and Vonsattel grade, were not reliably assigned. Furthermore, the quantification of lesions was far from reliable. In line with the first trial, the agreement while assessing density (some, moderate and many) was unimpressive. In conclusion, we can confirm the utility of immunohistochemical detection of Abeta-protein in diagnostics and research. It is noteworthy that to reach reproducible results a dichotomized assessment of Abeta-immunoreactivity rather than quantification and assignment of various types of lesions should be applied, particularly when comparing results obtained by different neuropathologists.
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