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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J, et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8627, EISSN 1554-8635. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  •  
2.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  •  
3.
  • Albin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Aktuella arbets- och miljömedicinska problem
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Arbets- och miljömedicin - en lärobok om hälsa och miljö. - Studentlitteratur. - 978-91-44-05399-8 ; s. 165-176
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
4.
  • Edling, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Arbets- och miljömedicin- begrepp och trender
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Arbets- och miljömedicin - en lärobok om hälsa och miljö. - Studentlitteratur. - 978-91-44-05399-8 ; s. 13-24
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
5.
6.
7.
  • Albin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Assessment for Carbon Nanotubes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Arbete och Hälsa. - Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg. - 0346-7821. - 978-91-85971-32-9 ; 45:5, s. 1
  • Annan publikation (refereegranskat)
8.
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9.
  • Hedmer, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide as a biomarker of exposure by studying its renal clearance at high and low plasma concentrations in cancer patients
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International archives of occupational and environmental health. - Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. - 0340-0131. ; 81:3, s. 285-293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating agent classified as a human carcinogen. Health care workers handling this drug may be exposed during, e.g., preparation or administration. Cyclophosphamide is readily absorbed by inhalation and by dermal uptake. A biomarker, CP in urine, has frequently been used to assess the occupational exposure to CP, but has not been fully validated. The aim of this study was to investigate if the proportion of the CP dose that is excreted in urine (renal clearance) is constant over different plasma drug concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., urine flow. METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of CP were studied in 16 breast cancer patients that were treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy including CP. Plasma and urine from the patients were collected at different occasions up to 12 days after the dose. Urine was collected during 4-h periods and blood was sampled at the end of each period. Analysis of CP was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection for CP in urine and plasma was 0.01 and 0.02 ng/ml, respectively. The precisions of the developed methods were determined to </=8%. RESULTS: The administered doses of CP in absolute amounts ranged between 800 and 2,240 mg. Mean renal clearance of CP was 8.6 (confidence interval 6.5-10.7) ml/min and was not significantly dependent of the plasma drug concentration. However, a significant correlation between renal clearance and urine flow was observed. There was a large inter-individual variation in the plasma and urine concentrations even when the same doses were given. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclophosphamide in urine can be continued to be used as a biomarker to monitor occupational exposure to CP, however the inter-individual variability of excretion of CP in urine, and its dependency on urine flow must be taken into consideration in future applications.
  •  
10.
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