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Sökning: WFRF:(Alen Markku) > (2005-2009)

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  • Cheng, Sulin, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in 10-12-y-old girls: a 2-y randomized trial.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The American journal of clinical nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 82:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relative effectiveness of calcium supplementation from food or pills with or without vitamin D supplementation for bone mass accrual during the rapid growth period. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to examine the effects of both food-based and pill supplements of calcium and vitamin D on bone mass and body composition in girls aged 10-12 y. DESIGN: This placebo-controlled intervention trial randomly assigned 195 healthy girls at Tanner stage I-II, aged 10-12 y, with dietary calcium intakes <900 mg/d to 1 of 4 groups: calcium (1000 mg) + vitamin D3 (200 IU), calcium (1000 mg), cheese (1000 mg calcium), and placebo. Primary outcomes were bone indexes of the hip, spine, and whole body by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and of the radius and tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. RESULTS: With the use of intention-to-treat or efficacy analysis, calcium supplementation with cheese resulted in a higher percentage change in cortical thickness of the tibia than did placebo, calcium, or calcium + vitamin D treatment (P = 0.01, 0.038, and 0.004, respectively) and in higher whole-body bone mineral density than did placebo treatment (P = 0.044) when compliance was >50%. With the use of a hierarchical linear model with random effects to control for growth velocity, these differences disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing calcium intake by consuming cheese appears to be more beneficial for cortical bone mass accrual than the consumption of tablets containing a similar amount of calcium. Diverse patterns of growth velocity may mask the efficacy of supplementation in a short-term trial of children transiting through puberty.
  • Cristea, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of combined strength and sprint training on regulation of muscle contraction at the whole-muscle and single fibre levels in elite master sprinters
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - 1748-1708 .- 1748-1716. ; 193:3, s. 275-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>AIM: This study aims at examining the effects of progressive strength and sprint training on regulation of muscle contraction at the whole-muscle and single-fibre levels in older sprint-trained athletes. METHODS: Eleven men (52-78 years) were randomized to a training (EX, n = 7) or control (CTRL, n = 4) group. EX participated in a 20-week programme that combined sprint training with heavy and explosive strength exercises, while CTRL maintained their usual run-based training schedules. RESULTS: EX improved maximal isometric and dynamic leg strength, explosive jump performance and force production in running. Specific tension and maximum shortening velocity of single fibres from the vastus lateralis were not altered in EX or CTRL. Fibre type and myosin heavy chain isoform distributions remained unchanged in the two groups. There was a general increase in fibre areas in EX, but this was significant only in IIa fibres. The 10% increase in squat jump in EX was accompanied by a 9% increase in the integrated EMG (iEMG) of the leg extensors but the 21-40% increases in isometric and dynamic strength were not paralleled by changes in iEMG. CONCLUSION: Adding strength training stimulus to the training programme improved maximal, explosive and sport-specific force production in elite master sprinters. These improvements were primarily related to hypertrophic muscular adaptations.</p>
  • Korhonen, Marko, et al. (författare)
  • Aging, muscle fiber type, and contractile function in sprint-trained athletes
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology. - 8750-7587 .- 1522-1601. ; 101:3, s. 906-917
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis of 18- to 84-yr-old male sprinters (n = 91). Fiber-type distribution, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content were identified using ATPase histochemistry and SDS-PAGE. Specific tension and maximum shortening velocity (V-o) were determined in 144 single skinned fibers from younger (18-33 yr, n = 8) and older (53-77 yr, n = 9) runners. Force-time characteristics of the knee extensors were determined by using isometric contraction. The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was unchanged with age, whereas that of type II fibers was reduced (P &lt; 0.001). With age there was an increased MHC I (P &lt; 0.01) and reduced MHC IIx isoform content (P &lt; 0.05) but no differences in MHC IIa. Specific tension of type I and IIa MHC fibers did not differ between younger and older subjects. V-o of fibers expressing type I MHC was lower (P &lt; 0.05) in older than in younger subjects, but there was no difference in V-o of type IIa MHC fibers. An aging-related decline of maximal isometric force (P &lt; 0.001) and normalized rate of force development (P &lt; 0.05) of knee extensors was observed. Normalized rate of force development was positively associated with MHC II (P &lt; 0.05). The sprint-trained athletes experienced the typical aging-related reduction in the size of fast fibers, a shift toward a slower MHC isoform profile, and a lower V-o of type I MHC fibers, which played a role in the decline in explosive force production. However, the muscle characteristics were preserved at a high level in the oldest runners, underlining the favorable impact of sprint exercise on aging muscle.</p>
  • Wang, Qingju, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effects of sex hormones on peri- and endocortical bone surfaces in pubertal girls.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 91:1, s. 277-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: The role of sex steroids in bone growth in pubertal girls is not yet clear. Bone biomarkers are indicators of bone metabolic activity, but their value in predicting bone quality has not been studied in growing girls. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association of sex hormones and bone markers with bone geometry and density in pubertal girls. DESIGN: The study was designed as a 2-yr longitudinal study in pubertal girls. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 1- and 2-yr follow-ups. SETTING: The study was conducted in a university laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 258 10- to 13-yr-old healthy girls at the baseline participated. METHODS: Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to scan the left tibial shaft. Serum 17beta-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), SHBG, osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b were assessed. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models with random effect. RESULTS: E2 was a positive predictor for total bone mineral density (BMD), cortical thickness, and a negative predictor for endocortical circumference but had no predictive value for total bone cross-sectional area or periosteal circumference. T was a positive predictor for total cross-sectional area and periosteal circumference as well as endocortical circumference, and a negative predictor for total BMD. OC was negatively correlated with cortical BMD (R2 = 0.325; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In pubertal girls, E2 and T have different influences on bone properties at the long bone shaft. The results suggest that, at the endocortical surface, E2 inhibits bone resorption during rapid growth, and later, after menarche, acts at higher concentrations to promote bone formation. At the periosteal surface, T promotes bone formation, whereas E2 does not affect it. In addition, OC might be used as a predictor of cortical BMD.
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