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Sökning: WFRF:(Alkan Olsson Johanna)

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1.
  • de Kaminski, Marcin, et al. (författare)
  • Studying Norms and Social Change in a Digital Age: Identifying and Understanding a Multidimensional Gap Problem
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Social and Legal Norms: Towards a Socio-legal Understanding of Normativity. - Ashgate. - 9781409453437 ; s. 309-330
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fact that the debate concerning copyright in a digital society has been both intense and filled with polemic conflicts ever since the late 1990s makes it clear that it is a most complicated issue to solve, or even grasp. Basically, both the legal and societal discussion and development are explicitly dependent on a greater understanding of the on-going processes surrounding copyright. This presents a well-suited point of departure for research such as the one conducted within the Cybernorms research group – both in terms of providing valuable insights into the field of sociology of law when it comes to understanding how to relate to the framework provided by digitalization in general and the Internet in particular, and in terms of providing more accurate knowledge and toolsets to legislators in related fields.
2.
  • Olsson, Johanna Alkan, et al. (författare)
  • Local stakeholders' acceptance of model-generated data used as a communication tool in water management: The Ronnea study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - Springer. - 0044-7447. ; 34:7, s. 507-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study was to increase the knowledge of local stakeholders' acceptance of model-generated data when used as a communication tool in water quality management. The Ronnea catchment in the southwest of Sweden was chosen as the study area. The results indicate the model-generated data served as a uniting factor. Simultaneously, the stakeholders were concerned with presented data, the main problems being sources of pollution, which were not accounted for, lack of trustworthiness when measuring pollution, and the uncertainty of the impact of natural variation and delayed effects. Four clusters of factors were identified as influencing stakeholders' acceptance of the model-generated data: confidence in its practical applications, confidence in the people involved in or providing material for the dialog (such as experts, decision-makers, and media), the social characteristics of the participants (such as age and profession), and the way of communicating the data (such as tone of communication, group composition, duration, and geographical scope of the dialog). The perception of the fairness of the practical application of given model-generated data was also an important factor for acceptance.
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3.
  • Olsson, Johanna Alkan, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Setting Limits in Nature and the Metabolism of Knowledge : The Case of the Critical Load Concept
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the 1980s, the earlier understanding that environmental problems are relatively simple was questioned. In order to handle the perceived complexity, several responses emerged. The Critical Load concept is a prominent example of such a response, which was introduced in thesecond-generation Protocols of the Convention of Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants (CLRTAP). The aim of this thesis is to analyse the dynamics of the ideational content of the Critical Load concept, using a discursive approach on policy. At the centre of the analysis are theories, ideas and knowledge claims about nature and processes in nature. The empirical material consists of policy texts produced by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and interviews with SEPA employees.The Critical Load concept can be interpreted as a meeting place where perceptions of different pollutants, objects in nature and scientific disciplines, meet and interact under the common view of nature as being robust within limits. Chemical mass-balance calculations oftransboundary air pollution in soils and forests dominate the operationalisation of the concept. The dominating chemical perspective has two origins. The first is the acidification concept, which has been the central issue of CLR TAP and has mainly been identified and discussed as a chemical problem. The second is the perception that chemical processes can be exactly measured in nature just as they can in the laboratory. Consequently, it is also generally assumed that estimates based on calculations of chemical processes fit well into the larger discourse of economically and ecologically efficient environmental policy-making within which the Critical Load concept has been situated. A change in the Critical Load concept, from exact mass balance calculations to risk analysis, could be identified with the introduction of new pollutants into the CLRTAP policy agenda. For certain types of pollutants even the possibility defining limits is denied. The conceptual change is here interpreted as a shrinkinglegitimacy of the concept, which also encompasses a weakening of the dominant view of nature as being robust within limits. It is, however too early to judge if this change will lead to larger discursive changes and a general refutation of the ideas that nature's limits are calculable and that such limits provide suitable foundations for environmental policy.
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4.
  • Alkan Olsson, Ilhami, et al. (författare)
  • Linking International Human Rights Law to Policy in Protecting against Adverse Effects of Climate Change
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin. - GMMA Department of Public health. - 1303-734X. ; 15:6, s. 556-568
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The article aims to illustrate the multifaceted interlink between climate change, heat, and human rights and discuss in what ways international human rights law may be used to support the development and implementation of policy at various levels to limit adverse effects of climate change on humans in general and right to health in particular. This is done by overviewing the possibilities and limits international law offers and displays in the fields of the environment, climate change and heat. Moreover, through emphasising the inter-linkages between international law and domestic law and policy, the article sets out how and by what means international human rights law is and may be incorporated and used in national law and policy-making in the area of climate change. The article concludes that human rights norms and principles could be used to promote a right-based national climate change regime in six different ways.
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6.
  • Larsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Law, Norms, Piracy and Online Anonymity – Practices of de-identification in the global file sharing community
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing: Special Issue on Digital Piracy. - Emerald Group Publishing Limited. - 2040-7130. ; 6:4, s. 260-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The purpose of this study is to better understand online anonymity in the global file-sharing community in the context of social norms and copyright law. The study describes the respondents in terms of use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) or similar services with respect to age, gender, geographical location, as well as analysing the correlation with file-sharing frequencies. Design/methodology/approach This study, to a large extent, collected descriptive data through a web-based survey. This was carried out in collaboration with the BitTorrent tracker The Pirate Bay (TPB), which allowed us to link the survey from the main logo of their site. In 72 hours, we received over 75,000 responses, providing the opportunity to compare use of anonymity services with factors of age, geographical region, file-sharing frequency, etc. Findings Overall, 17.8 per cent of the respondents used a VPN or similar service (free or paid). A core of high-frequency uploaders is more inclined to use VPNs or similar services than the average file sharer. Online anonymity practices in the file-sharing community depend on how legal and social norms correlate (more enforcement means more anonymity). Research limitations/implications The web-based survey was in English and mainly attracted visitors on The Pirate Bay’s web site. This means that it is likely that those who do not have the language skills necessary were excluded from the survey. Practical implications This study adds to the knowledge of online anonymity practices in terms of traceability and identification, and therefore describes some of the conditions for legal enforcement in a digital environment. Social implications This study adds to the knowledge of how the Internet is changing in terms of a polarization between stronger means of legally enforced identification and a growing awareness of how to be more untraceable. Originality/value The scale of the survey, with over 75,000 respondents from most parts of the world, has likely not been seen before on this topic. The descriptive study of anonymity practices in the global file-sharing community is therefore likely unique.
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9.
  • van Ittersum, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Integrated Assessment of Agricultural and Environmental Policies – A Modular Framework for the EU (SEAMLESS)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Agricultural Systems. - Elsevier. - 0308-521X. ; 96:1-3, s. 150-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined Agricultural systems continuously evolve and are forced to change as a result of a range of global and local driving forces. Agricultural technologies and agricultural, environmental and rural development policies are increasingly designed to contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems and to enhance contributions of agricultural systems to sustainable development at large. The effectiveness and efficiency of such policies and technological developments in realizing desired contributions could be greatly enhanced if the quality of their ex-ante assessments were improved. Four key challenges and requirements to make research tools more useful for integrated assessment in the European Union were defined in interactions between scientists and the European Commission (EC), i.e., overcoming the gap between micro-macro level analysis, the bias in integrated assessments towards either economic or environmental issues, the poor re-use of models and hindrances in technical linkage of models. Tools for integrated assessment must have multi-scale capabilities and preferably be generic and flexible such that they can deal with a broad variety of policy questions. At the same time, to be useful for scientists, the framework must facilitate state-of-the-art science both on aspects of the agricultural systems and on integration. This paper presents the rationale, design and illustration of a component-based framework for agricultural systems (SEAMLESS Integrated Framework) to assess, ex-ante, agricultural and agri-environmental policies and technologies across a range of scales, from field-farm to region and European Union, as well as some global interactions. We have opted for a framework to link individual model and data components and a software infrastructure that allows a flexible (re-)use and linkage of components. The paper outlines the software infrastructure, indicators and model and data components. The illustrative example assesses effects of a trade liberalisation proposal on EU's agriculture and indicates how SEAMLESS addresses the four identified challenges for integrated assessment tools, i.e., linking micro and macro analysis, assessing economic, environmental, social and institutional indicators, (re-)using standalone model components for field, farm and market analysis and their conceptual and technical linkage.
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10.
  • Alkan Olsson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • A goal oriented indicator framework to support integrated assessment of new policies for agri-environmental systems
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy. - Elsevier. - 1462-9011. ; 12:5, s. 562-572
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The goal oriented framework (GOF) for indicators has been developed as part of a comprehensive research project developing computerised tools for integrated assessment of the effects of new policies or technologies on agricultural systems (SEAMLESS-IF). The ambition has therefore been to create an indicator framework where the environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainable development can be related to each other in a consistent way. Integrated assessment tools rely on such frameworks to capture and visualise trade-offs (antagonisms or synergies) among indicators between and within the three dimensions of sustainable development. The specific aims of this paper are to (i) present the GOF (ii) present how the GOF can be used to select indicators within the integrated assessment framework SEAMLESS-IF and (iii) discuss the advantages and limitations with the proposed approach. We show that the GOF has several advantages. Its major rewards are its relative simplicity and the possibility to link indicators to policy goals of each dimension of sustainability and thereby facilitate the comparison of the impacts of the new policy on the different dimensions. Another important feature of the GOF is its multi-scale perspective, which will enable the comparison of effects of a new policy between scales. Yet, as typical for all indicator frameworks, the GOF has also biases either instigated by the issues the included models cover or by the stakeholders' selection of indicators. However, due to the way the GOF and its indicators are technically implemented in SEAMLESS-IF, it can easily be extended and include new indicators to increase and update its policy relevance. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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