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Sökning: WFRF:(Andersen Claus Yding) > (2020-2021)

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  • Björvang, Richelle D., et al. (författare)
  • Mixtures of persistent organic pollutants are found in vital organs of late gestation human fetuses
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - : Elsevier. - 0045-6535 .- 1879-1298. ; 283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are industrial chemicals with long half-lives. Early life exposure to POPs has been associated with adverse effects. Fetal exposure is typically estimated based on concentrations in maternal serum or placenta and little is known on the actual fetal exposure. We measured the concentrations of nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry in maternal serum, placenta, and fetal tissues (adipose tissue, liver, heart, lung and brain) in 20 pregnancies that ended in stillbirth (gestational weeks 36–41). The data were combined with our earlier data on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the same cohort (Mamsen et al. 2019). HCB, p,p’-DDE, PCB 138 and PCB 153 were quantified in all samples of maternal serum, placenta and fetal tissues. All 22 POPs were detected in all fetal adipose tissue samples, even in cases where they could not be detected in maternal serum or placenta. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly higher in later gestations, male fetuses, and pregnancies with normal placental function. OCPs showed the highest tissue:serum ratios and PFAS the lowest. The highest chemical burden was found in adipose tissue and lowest in the brain. Overall, all studied human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to mixtures of POPs. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly modified by gestational age, fetal sex and placental function. Importantly, more chemicals were detected in fetal tissues compared to maternal serum and placenta, implying that these proxy samples may provide a misleading picture of actual fetal exposures.
  • Ruth, Katherine S, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 596:7872, s. 393-397
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women1,2, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations3. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
  • Pla, Indira, et al. (författare)
  • Proteome of fluid from human ovarian small antral follicles reveals insights in folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Human reproduction (Oxford, England). - : Oxford University Press. - 0268-1161. ; 36:3, s. 756-770
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to identify by mass spectrometry a wider range of proteins and key proteins involved in folliculogenesis and oocyte growth and development by studying follicular fluid (FF) from human small antral follicles (hSAF)?SUMMARY ANSWER: The largest number of proteins currently reported in human FF was identified in this study analysing hSAF where several proteins showed a strong relationship with follicular developmental processes.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Protein composition of human ovarian FF constitutes the microenvironment for oocyte development. Previous proteomics studies have analysed fluids from pre-ovulatory follicles, where large numbers of plasma constituents are transferred through the follicular basal membrane. This attenuates the detection of low abundant proteins, however, the basal membrane of small antral follicles is less permeable, making it possible to detect a large number of proteins, and thereby offering further insights in folliculogenesis.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Proteins in FF from unstimulated hSAF (size 6.1 ± 0.4 mm) were characterised by mass spectrometry, supported by high-throughput and targeted proteomics and bioinformatics. The FF protein profiles from hSAF containing oocytes, capable or not of maturing to metaphase II of the second meiotic division during an IVM (n = 13, from 6 women), were also analysed.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We collected FF from hSAF of ovaries that had been surgically removed from 31 women (∼28.5 years old) undergoing unilateral ovariectomy for fertility preservation.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In total, 2461 proteins were identified, of which 1108 identified for the first time in FF. Of the identified proteins, 24 were related to follicular regulatory processes. A total of 35 and 65 proteins were down- and up-regulated, respectively, in fluid from hSAF surrounding oocytes capable of maturing (to MII). We found that changes at the protein level occur already in FF from small antral follicles related to subsequent oocyte maturation.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: A possible limitation of our study is the uncertainty of the proportion of the sampled follicles that are undergoing atresia. Although the FF samples were carefully aspirated and processed to remove possible contaminants, we cannot ensure the absence of some proteins derived from cellular lysis provoked by technical reasons.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This study is, to our knowledge, the first proteomics characterisation of FF from hSAF obtained from women in their natural menstrual cycle. We demonstrated that the analysis by mass spectrometry of FF from hSAF allows the identification of a greater number of proteins compared to the results obtained from previous analyses of larger follicles. Significant differences found at the protein level in hSAF fluid could predict the ability of the enclosed oocyte to sustain meiotic resumption. If this can be confirmed in further studies, it demonstrates that the viability of the oocyte is determined early on in follicular development and this may open up new pathways for augmenting or attenuating subsequent oocyte viability in the pre-ovulatory follicle ready to undergo ovulation.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The authors thank the financial support from ReproUnion, which is funded by the Interreg V EU programme. No conflict of interest was reported by the authors.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.
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