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Sökning: WFRF:(Andersen Peter M.) > (2020-2021)

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  • Biström, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection after adolescence and Human herpesvirus 6A as risk factors for multiple sclerosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 28:2, s. 579-586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Infections with human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) have been linked to multiple sclerosis (MS) development. For EBV, late infection has been proposed as a risk factor, but serological support is lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate how age affects the EBV and HHV-6A associated risks of developing MS.Methods: In this nested case–control study, Swedish biobanks were accessed to find pre-symptomatically collected blood samples from 670 individuals who later developed relapsing MS and 670 matched controls. A bead-based multiplex assay was used to determine serological response against EBV and HHV-6A. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.Results: Seropositivity against EBV exhibited a pattern where associations switched from a decreased risk of developing MS in the group below 20 years of age to an increased risk amongst individuals aged 20–29 and 30–39 years (p for trend 0.020). The age of transition was estimated to be 18.8 years. In contrast, HHV-6A was associated with increased MS risk in all age groups (total cohort odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.6–2.7).Conclusions: This study suggests EBV infection after adolescence and age independent HHV-6A infection as risk factors for MS.
  • Lahrouchi, Najim, et al. (författare)
  • Transethnic Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insights in the Genetic Architecture and Heritability of Long QT Syndrome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 142:4, s. 324-338
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare genetic disorder and a major preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. A causal rare genetic variant with large effect size is identified in up to 80% of probands (genotype positive) and cascade family screening shows incomplete penetrance of genetic variants. Furthermore, a proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for LQTS remain genetically elusive despite genetic testing of established genes (genotype negative). These observations raise the possibility that common genetic variants with small effect size contribute to the clinical picture of LQTS. This study aimed to characterize and quantify the contribution of common genetic variation to LQTS disease susceptibility. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies followed by transethnic meta-analysis in 1656 unrelated patients with LQTS of European or Japanese ancestry and 9890 controls to identify susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms. We estimated the common variant heritability of LQTS and tested the genetic correlation between LQTS susceptibility and other cardiac traits. Furthermore, we tested the aggregate effect of the 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population using a polygenic risk score. Results: Genome-wide association analysis identified 3 loci associated with LQTS at genome-wide statistical significance (P<5x10(-8)) nearNOS1AP,KCNQ1, andKLF12, and 1 missense variant inKCNE1(p.Asp85Asn) at the suggestive threshold (P<10(-6)). Heritability analyses showed that approximate to 15% of variance in overall LQTS susceptibility was attributable to common genetic variation (h2SNP0.148; standard error 0.019). LQTS susceptibility showed a strong genome-wide genetic correlation with the QT-interval in the general population (r(g)=0.40;P=3.2x10(-3)). The polygenic risk score comprising common variants previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population was greater in LQTS cases compared with controls (P<10-13), and it is notable that, among patients with LQTS, this polygenic risk score was greater in patients who were genotype negative compared with those who were genotype positive (P<0.005). Conclusions: This work establishes an important role for common genetic variation in susceptibility to LQTS. We demonstrate overlap between genetic control of the QT-interval in the general population and genetic factors contributing to LQTS susceptibility. Using polygenic risk score analyses aggregating common genetic variants that modulate the QT-interval in the general population, we provide evidence for a polygenic architecture in genotype negative LQTS.
  • Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term low-level ambient air pollution exposure and risk of lung cancer - A pooled analysis of 7 European cohorts
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/aim: Ambient air pollution has been associated with lung cancer, but the shape of the exposure-response function - especially at low exposure levels - is not well described. The aim of this study was to address the relationship between long-term low-level air pollution exposure and lung cancer incidence.Methods: The Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O-3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines.Results: The analyses included 307,550 cohort participants. During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, 3956 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Median (Q1, Q3) annual (2010) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O-3 (warm season) were 24.2 mu g/m(3) (19.5, 29.7), 15.4 mu g/m(3) (12.8, 17.3), 1.6 10(-5)m(-1) (1.3, 1.8), and 86.6 mu g/m(3) (78.5, 92.9), respectively. We observed a higher risk for lung cancer with higher exposure to PM2.5 (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 per 5 mu g/m(3)). This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants. The SCHIF, spline and subset analyses suggested a linear or supra-linear association with no evidence of a threshold. In subset analyses, risk estimates were clearly elevated for the subset of subjects with exposure below the EU limit value of 25 mu g/m(3). We did not observe associations between NO2, BC or O-3 and lung cancer incidence.Conclusions: Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung cancer incidence even at concentrations below current EU limit values and possibly WHO Air Quality Guidelines.
  • Kuraszkiewicz, B., et al. (författare)
  • Potential Preventive Strategies for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1662-4548 .- 1662-453X. ; 14
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It may seem useless to propose preventive measures for a disease without established pathogenesis and successful therapy, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, we will show that ALS shares essential molecular mechanisms with aging and that established anti-aging strategies, such as healthy diet or individually adjusted exercise, may be successfully applied to ameliorate the condition of ALS patients. These strategies might be applied for prevention if persons at ALS risk could be identified early enough. Recent research advances indicate that this may happen soon.
  • Bistrom, M., et al. (författare)
  • Leptin levels are associated with multiple sclerosis risk
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Multiple Sclerosis Journal. - : Sage Publications. - 1352-4585 .- 1477-0970.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Obesity early in life has been linked to increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Leptin and insulin are both associated with obesity, making them suitable candidates for investigating this connection. Objective: To determine if leptin and insulin are risk factors for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: In this nested case-control study using blood samples from Swedish biobanks, we compared concentrations of leptin and insulin in 649 individuals who later developed RRMS with 649 controls matched for biobank, sex, age and date of sampling. Only pre-symptomatically drawn samples from individuals below the age of 40 years were included. Conditional logistic regression was performed on z-scored values to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A 1-unit leptin z-score increase was associated with increased risk of MS in individuals younger than 20 years (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9) and in all men (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). In contrast, for women aged 30-39 years, there was a lower risk of MS with increased leptin levels (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.0) when adjusting for insulin levels. Conclusion: We show that the pro-inflammatory adipokine leptin is a risk factor for MS among young individuals.
  • Pröbstel, Anne-Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Gut microbiota-specific IgA+ B cells traffic to the CNS in active multiple sclerosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science immunology. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 2470-9468. ; 5:53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Changes in gut microbiota composition and a diverse role of B cells have recently been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a key regulator at the mucosal interface. However, whether gut microbiota shape IgA responses and what role IgA+ cells have in neuroinflammation are unknown. Here, we identify IgA-bound taxa in MS and show that IgA-producing cells specific for MS-associated taxa traffic to the inflamed CNS, resulting in a strong, compartmentalized IgA enrichment in active MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Unlike previously characterized polyreactive anti-commensal IgA responses, CNS IgA cross-reacts with surface structures on specific bacterial strains but not with brain tissue. These findings establish gut microbiota-specific IgA+ cells as a systemic mediator in MS and suggest a critical role of mucosal B cells during active neuroinflammation with broad implications for IgA as an informative biomarker and IgA-producing cells as an immune subset to harness for therapeutic interventions.
  • Framke, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of income and job strain to the association between education and cardiovascular disease in 1.6 million Danish employees
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 41:11, s. 1164-1178
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We examined the extent to which associations between education and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality are attributable to income and work stress.Methods and results: We included all employed Danish residents aged 30–59 years in 2000. Cardiovascular disease morbidity analyses included 1 638 270 individuals, free of cardiometabolic disease (CVD or diabetes). Mortality analyses included 41 944 individuals with cardiometabolic disease. We assessed education and income annually from population registers and work stress, defined as job strain, with a job-exposure matrix. Outcomes were ascertained until 2014 from health registers and risk was estimated using Cox regression. During 10 957 399 (men) and 10 776 516 person-years (women), we identified 51 585 and 24 075 incident CVD cases, respectively. For men with low education, risk of CVD was 1.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58–1.66] before and 1.46 (95% CI 1.42–1.50) after adjustment for income and job strain (25% reduction). In women, estimates were 1.66 (95% CI 1.61–1.72) and 1.53 (95% CI 1.47–1.58) (21% reduction). Of individuals with cardiometabolic disease, 1736 men (362 234 person-years) and 341 women (179 402 person-years) died from CVD. Education predicted CVD mortality in both sexes. Estimates were reduced with 54% (men) and 33% (women) after adjustment for income and job strain.Conclusion: Low education predicted incident CVD in initially healthy individuals and CVD mortality in individuals with prevalent cardiometabolic disease. In men with cardiometabolic disease, income and job strain explained half of the higher CVD mortality in the low education group. In healthy men and in women regardless of cardiometabolic disease, these factors explained 21–33% of the higher CVD morbidity and mortality.
  • Yilmaz, Rüstem, et al. (författare)
  • SQSTM1/p62 variants in 486 patients with familial ALS from Germany and Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 87, s. 139.e9-139.e15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies reported amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations in TBK1, OPTN, VCP, UBQLN2, and SQSTM1 genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy. SQSTM1 was originally identified by a candidate gene approach because it encodes p62, a multifunctional protein involved in protein degradation both through proteasomal regulation and autophagy. Both p62 and optineurin (encoded by OPTN) are direct interaction partners and substrates of TBK1, and these 3 proteins form the core of a genetic and functional network that may connect autophagy with ALS. Considering the molecular and conceptual relevance of the TBK1/OPTN/SQSTM1 "triangle," we here performed a targeted screen for SQSTM1 variants in 486 patients with familial ALS from Germany and Sweden by analyzing whole-exome sequencing data. We report 9 novel and 5 previously reported rare variants in SQSTM1 and discuss the current evidence for SQSTM1 as a primary disease gene for ALS. We conclude that the evidence for causality remains vague for SQSTM1 and is weaker than for the other autophagy genes, for example, TBK1 and OPTN.
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