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1.
  • Andersson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Tobacco Smoke on IL-16 in CD8+ Cells from Human Airways and Blood: a Key Role for Oxygen Free Radicals?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: AJP - Lung cellular and molecular physiology. - 1522-1504. ; 300:1, s. 43-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic exposure to tobacco smoke leads to an increase in the frequency of infections and in CD8(+) and CD4(+)cells as well as the CD4(+) chemo-attractant cytokine IL-16 in the airways. Here, we investigated whether tobacco smoke depletes intracellular IL-16 protein and inhibits de novo production of IL-16 in CD8(+) cells from human airways and blood, while at the same time increasing extracellular IL-16 and whether oxygen free radicals (OFR) are involved. Intracellular IL-16 protein in CD8(+) cells and mRNA in all cells was decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from chronic smokers. This was also the case in human blood CD8(+) cells exposed to water-soluble tobacco smoke components in vitro; in which oxidized proteins were markedly increased. Extracellular IL-16 protein was increased in cell-free BAL fluid from chronic smokers and in human blood CD8(+) cells exposed to water-soluble tobacco smoke components in vitro. This was not observed in occasional smokers after short-term exposure to tobacco smoke. A marker of activation (CD69) was slightly increased whereas other markers of key cellular functions (membrane integrity, apoptosis and proliferation) in human blood CD8(+) cells in vitro were negatively affected by water-soluble tobacco smoke components. An OFR scavenger prevented these effects whereas a protein synthesis inhibitor, a beta-adrenoceptor, a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, a phosphodiesterase, a calcineurin phosphatase and a caspase-3 inhibitor did not. In conclusion, tobacco smoke depletes preformed intracellular IL-16 protein, inhibits its de novo synthesis and distorts key cellular functions in human CD8(+) cells. OFR may play a key role in this context.
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3.
  • Andersson, Bodil T., et al. (författare)
  • Radiographers' areas of professional competence related to good nursing care
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 22:3, s. 401-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Radiographers' ability and competence is a matter of vital importance for patients. Nursing care is an integral part of the radiographer's work. The demand for high competence in clinical activities has increased in diagnostic radiology and has had an impact on the development of the profession.AIM: The aim was to describe the radiographer's areas of professional competence in relation to good nursing care based on critical incidents that occur in the course of radiological examinations and interventions.METHOD: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique was employed. Interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of registered radiographers (n = 14), based at different hospitals in Sweden.ETHICAL ISSUES: The appropriate ethical principles were followed. All the participants provided informed consent, and formal approval for conducting the research was obtained according to national and local directives.RESULTS: The data analysis resulted in two main areas; direct and indirect patient-related areas of competence, which describe the radiographers' skills that either facilitate or hinder good nursing care. In the direct patient-related area of competence, four categories emerged, which illustrate good nursing care in the patient's immediate surroundings. In the indirect patient-related area of competence, four categories illuminated good nursing care that is provided without direct contact with the patient.CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the different areas of the radiographer's unique professional competence. The findings provide insight into the radiographer's profession, on one hand as a carer and on the other as a medical technologist as well as highlighting the importance of each role. The radiographer's work encompasses a variety of components--from caring for the patient to handling and checking the technical equipment.
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4.
  • Andersson, Jennie, et al. (författare)
  • Design as Information : How May Design and Information Relate?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal. - 1833-1874. ; 3:4, s. 161-172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to Pettersson, design may be a process and/or the result of the process, a product. The area of design is multidisciplinary and involves several notions. One is in the subject field of Information Design, which includes language, communication, art, cognition and information science. These disciplines refer to the concept of information differently. There is therefore a need for a fruitful theory of information, terms and concepts in order to enrich the reasoning of design as information. Bates presents a definition of information and several fundamental information forms. There, she offers a theoretical framework, the main core of which is that information may take different forms related to architecture, graphic design, interior design, and interface design, etc. Such a framework may contribute to understanding the meaning of design. Bates’ theory is applied in a study involving spatial design in industrial environments. The conclusions of the study illustrates how design and information relate to a design process and a design product that enriches the understanding of the meaning of design.
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5.
  • Andersson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Trafikverket överväger att tillåta längre och tyngre fordon på vägarna förutsatt att de inte påverkar trafiksäkerheten negativt. Syftet med studien var att undersöka säkerhetseffekten av fordonslängd, speciellt med avseende på olycksrisken vid omkörningar. Intervjuade förare av en 30-meters timmerbil hade inte upplevt de farhågor som förare av normallånga lastbilar uttryckt i samband med trånga rondeller och korsningar, men de nämner betydelsen av stödjande åkeri, arbetsmiljö och fordonsutrustning. En simulatorstudie studerade bilförares omkörningar av ett 30- och ett 18,75-metersfordon på en 2+1-väg i situationen då två körfält går ihop till ett. Tidluckan till ett återstående körfält var i genomsnitt 0,2 s (sign.) kortare efter omkörningar av 30-metersfordonet i situationer då bakänden var i samma relativa position som för 18,75-metersfordonet vid början av omkörningen. En fältstudie analyserade videoinspelade omkörningar av en 30- och en 24-meters timmerbil på en 2+1-väg och en tvåfältig väg. Ingen signifikant skillnad i tidluckor kunde påvisas mellan omkörningar av de två fordonen för någon av vägtyperna. Det senare resultatet ska dock tolkas med försiktighet på grund av ojämnt distribuerad data som insamlats under specifika förhållanden. Slutsatserna är att det finns en liten tendens till negativ säkerhetseffekt vid omkörningar av längre fordon, och att fler fältstudier är nödvändiga.
6.
  • Futter, Martyn N., et al. (författare)
  • Forests, forestry and the water framework directive in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forests. - 1999-4907. ; 2:1, s. 261-282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is an ambitious piece of legislation designed to protect and improve water quality throughout Europe. However, forests are only mentioned once in the WFD, and forestry is not mentioned at all, despite its potential implications for streams, rivers and lakes. Here we present a transdisciplinary commentary on the WFD and its implications for forests and forestry in Sweden. This commentary has been prepared by forestry stakeholders, biophysical and social scientists. While we were cognizant of a large body of discipline-specific research, there are very few inter- or trans-disciplinary commentaries which link academic and stakeholder perspectives on the WFD. We had originally felt that there would be little commonality in our concerns. However, we found significant areas of agreement. Our key areas of concern about the implications of the WFD for forestry in Sweden included: (i) concerns about what is meant by good ecological status and how it is assessed; (ii) a perceived lack of clarity in the legal framework; (iii) an inadequate environmental impact assessment process; and (iv) uncertainties about appropriate programs of measures for improving water quality. We were also concerned that ecosystem services provided by forests and the positive effects of forestry on water quality are inadequately recognized in the WFD.
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9.
  • Anderhag, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Syften och tillfälligheter i högstadie- och gymnasielaborationen: en studie om hur elever handlar i relation till aktivitetens mål
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: NorDiNa : Nordic Studies in Science Education. - 1504-4556. ; 10:1, s. 63-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies have shown that students’ awareness of the goals and purposes of the laboratory activity is important for their possibility to participate in and learn from the activity. While practical activities often have been considered to be a central part of science education, relatively few studies have examined laboratory work in situ. In this paper we addressed these issues by examining (a) what purposes are distinguished when students’ work with a laboratory assignment and (b) how these purposes are made continuous with the teacher’s aim with the assignment. The data was based on classroom observations from two ordinary laboratory settings, one from a chemistry class in lower secondary school and one from a physics class in the natural science programme in upper secondary school. Although both student groups acknowledged their teacher’s intentions with the practical and could act towards the more student centered purposes of the activity, e.g. describe what happens with the copper and measure the speed of a small vessel respectively, there were differences regarding the possibilities the students had to act toward the activity’s final aim. The results showed that these factors can be referred to the amount of purposes introduced by the teacher as well as those that arose because of contingences, and the connection of these purposes to students’ prior experiences
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10.
  • Andersson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of tobacco smoke on interleukin-16 protein in human airways, lymphoid tissue and T lymphocytes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Clinical and experimental immunology. - 0009-9104. ; 138:1, s. 75-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes are mobilized in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the CD8(+) cytokine interleukin (IL)-16 is believed to be important in regulating the recruitment and activity of CD4(+) lymphocytes. In the current study, we examined whether tobacco smoke exerts an impact not only on IL-16 in the lower airways but also in CD4(+) or CD8(+) lymphocytes or in lymphoid tissue. The concentration of IL-16 protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from 33 smokers with chronic bronchitis (CB), eight asymptomatic smokers (AS) and seven healthy never-smokers (NS). The concentrations of IL-16 and soluble IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Ralpha) protein were also measured in conditioned medium from human blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes stimulated with tobacco smoke extract (TSE) in vitro. IL-16 mRNA was assessed in vitro as well, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the intracellular immunoreactivity for IL-16 protein (IL-16IR) was assessed in six matched pairs of palatine tonsils from smokers and non-smokers. BALF IL-16 was higher in CB and AS than in NS. TSE substantially increased the concentration of IL-16 but not sIL-2Ralpha in conditioned medium from CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes. There was no corresponding effect on IL-16 mRNA. IL-16IR in tonsils was lower in smokers than in non-smokers. The current findings demonstrate that tobacco smoke exerts a wide impact on the CD8(+) cytokine IL-16, in the airway lumen, in blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and in lymphoid tissue. The effect on IL-16 release may be selective for preformed IL-16 in CD4(+) lymphocytes. New clinical studies are required to evaluate whether tobacco smoke mobilizes T lymphocytes via IL-16 in the lower airways and whether this mechanism can be targeted in COPD.
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