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  • Andersson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Tobacco Smoke on IL-16 in CD8+ Cells from Human Airways and Blood: a Key Role for Oxygen Free Radicals?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: AJP - Lung cellular and molecular physiology. - 1522-1504. ; 300:1, s. 43-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic exposure to tobacco smoke leads to an increase in the frequency of infections and in CD8(+) and CD4(+)cells as well as the CD4(+) chemo-attractant cytokine IL-16 in the airways. Here, we investigated whether tobacco smoke depletes intracellular IL-16 protein and inhibits de novo production of IL-16 in CD8(+) cells from human airways and blood, while at the same time increasing extracellular IL-16 and whether oxygen free radicals (OFR) are involved. Intracellular IL-16 protein in CD8(+) cells and mRNA in all cells was decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from chronic smokers. This was also the case in human blood CD8(+) cells exposed to water-soluble tobacco smoke components in vitro; in which oxidized proteins were markedly increased. Extracellular IL-16 protein was increased in cell-free BAL fluid from chronic smokers and in human blood CD8(+) cells exposed to water-soluble tobacco smoke components in vitro. This was not observed in occasional smokers after short-term exposure to tobacco smoke. A marker of activation (CD69) was slightly increased whereas other markers of key cellular functions (membrane integrity, apoptosis and proliferation) in human blood CD8(+) cells in vitro were negatively affected by water-soluble tobacco smoke components. An OFR scavenger prevented these effects whereas a protein synthesis inhibitor, a beta-adrenoceptor, a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, a phosphodiesterase, a calcineurin phosphatase and a caspase-3 inhibitor did not. In conclusion, tobacco smoke depletes preformed intracellular IL-16 protein, inhibits its de novo synthesis and distorts key cellular functions in human CD8(+) cells. OFR may play a key role in this context.
  • Andersson, Bodil T, et al. (författare)
  • Radiographers' areas of professional competence related to good nursing care
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 22:3, s. 401-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Radiographers' ability and competence is a matter of vital importance for patients. Nursing care is an integral part of the radiographer's work. The demand for high competence in clinical activities has increased in diagnostic radiology and has had an impact on the development of the profession.AIM: The aim was to describe the radiographer's areas of professional competence in relation to good nursing care based on critical incidents that occur in the course of radiological examinations and interventions.METHOD: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique was employed. Interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of registered radiographers (n = 14), based at different hospitals in Sweden.ETHICAL ISSUES: The appropriate ethical principles were followed. All the participants provided informed consent, and formal approval for conducting the research was obtained according to national and local directives.RESULTS: The data analysis resulted in two main areas; direct and indirect patient-related areas of competence, which describe the radiographers' skills that either facilitate or hinder good nursing care. In the direct patient-related area of competence, four categories emerged, which illustrate good nursing care in the patient's immediate surroundings. In the indirect patient-related area of competence, four categories illuminated good nursing care that is provided without direct contact with the patient.CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the different areas of the radiographer's unique professional competence. The findings provide insight into the radiographer's profession, on one hand as a carer and on the other as a medical technologist as well as highlighting the importance of each role. The radiographer's work encompasses a variety of components--from caring for the patient to handling and checking the technical equipment.
  • Andersson, Jennie, et al. (författare)
  • Design as Information : How May Design and Information Relate?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal. - 1833-1874. ; 3:4, s. 161-172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to Pettersson, design may be a process and/or the result of the process, a product. The area of design is multidisciplinary and involves several notions. One is in the subject field of Information Design, which includes language, communication, art, cognition and information science. These disciplines refer to the concept of information differently. There is therefore a need for a fruitful theory of information, terms and concepts in order to enrich the reasoning of design as information. Bates presents a definition of information and several fundamental information forms. There, she offers a theoretical framework, the main core of which is that information may take different forms related to architecture, graphic design, interior design, and interface design, etc. Such a framework may contribute to understanding the meaning of design. Bates’ theory is applied in a study involving spatial design in industrial environments. The conclusions of the study illustrates how design and information relate to a design process and a design product that enriches the understanding of the meaning of design.
  • Andersson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of tobacco smoke on interleukin-16 protein in human airways, lymphoid tissue and T lymphocytes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Clinical and experimental immunology. - 0009-9104. ; 138:1, s. 75-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes are mobilized in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the CD8(+) cytokine interleukin (IL)-16 is believed to be important in regulating the recruitment and activity of CD4(+) lymphocytes. In the current study, we examined whether tobacco smoke exerts an impact not only on IL-16 in the lower airways but also in CD4(+) or CD8(+) lymphocytes or in lymphoid tissue. The concentration of IL-16 protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from 33 smokers with chronic bronchitis (CB), eight asymptomatic smokers (AS) and seven healthy never-smokers (NS). The concentrations of IL-16 and soluble IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Ralpha) protein were also measured in conditioned medium from human blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes stimulated with tobacco smoke extract (TSE) in vitro. IL-16 mRNA was assessed in vitro as well, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the intracellular immunoreactivity for IL-16 protein (IL-16IR) was assessed in six matched pairs of palatine tonsils from smokers and non-smokers. BALF IL-16 was higher in CB and AS than in NS. TSE substantially increased the concentration of IL-16 but not sIL-2Ralpha in conditioned medium from CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes. There was no corresponding effect on IL-16 mRNA. IL-16IR in tonsils was lower in smokers than in non-smokers. The current findings demonstrate that tobacco smoke exerts a wide impact on the CD8(+) cytokine IL-16, in the airway lumen, in blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and in lymphoid tissue. The effect on IL-16 release may be selective for preformed IL-16 in CD4(+) lymphocytes. New clinical studies are required to evaluate whether tobacco smoke mobilizes T lymphocytes via IL-16 in the lower airways and whether this mechanism can be targeted in COPD.
  • Andersson, Annika K., et al. (författare)
  • Cytokine-induced PGE2 formation is reduced from iNOS deficient murine islets
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. - 0303-7207. ; 220:1-2, s. 21-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytokines may be involved in islet destruction during Type 1 diabetes. Exposure to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or IL-1beta plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) of rodent islets induces expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Subsequent formation of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) may impair beta-cell function. Using iNOS deficient (iNOS -/-) islets, we have further investigated the relation between NO formation and PGE(2) induction. We found that iNOS -/- islets responded with a reduced PGE(2) formation following IL-1beta or (IL-1beta + IFN-gamma) treatment compared to wild-type (wt) islets, while COX-2 mRNA or protein content were unchanged. By the addition of an NO donor together with IL-1beta, PGE(2) formation could be stimulated from iNOS -/- islets. We conclude that the lowered capacity of PGE(2) formation observed from cytokine exposed iNOS -/- islets is due to a decreased stimulation of PGE(2) formation by the COX-2 enzyme in the absence of NO, rather then differences in expressed COX-2 protein.
  • Andersson, Carina, et al. (författare)
  • A Case Study on Quality Monitoring in a Highly Iterative Software Development Process
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Fifth Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes a case study on quality monitoring conducted in an industrial environment. In a highly iterative project, everything seems to happen at the same time; analysis, design and testing. In the study, data collected from three software development projects is analyzed, to investigate which characteristics are stable across projects and feature groups of the product. Design and test activities are conducted in parallel in the incremental development environment, adding features to a product base continuously. The contribution of the paper is multifold, detailing the case study methodology used with its subgoals and procedure, presenting the lessons learned from the study, and the results as such from the case study give insights into a complex development environment and the trends of the retrieved data, which e.g. are used for a defect prediction model.
  • Andersson, Carina (författare)
  • A replicated empirical study of a selection method for software reliability growth models
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering. - Springer. - 1382-3256. ; 12:2, s. 161-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Replications are commonly considered to be important contributions to investigate the generality of empirical studies. By replicating an original study it may be shown that the results are either valid or invalid in another context, outside the specific environment in which the original study was launched. The results of the replicated study show how much confidence we could possibly have in the original study. We present a replication of a method for selecting software reliability growth models to decide whether to stop testing and release software. We applied the selection method in an empirical study, conducted in a different development environment than the original study. The results of the replication study show that with the changed values of stability and curve fit, the selection method works well on the empirical system test data available, i.e., the method was applicable in an environment that was different from the original one. The application of the SRGMs to failures during functional testing resulted in predictions with low relative error, thus providing a useful approach in giving good estimates of the total number of failures to expect during functional testing.
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