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  • Andersson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Tobacco Smoke on IL-16 in CD8+ Cells from Human Airways and Blood: a Key Role for Oxygen Free Radicals?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: AJP - Lung cellular and molecular physiology. - 1522-1504. ; 300:1, s. 43-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic exposure to tobacco smoke leads to an increase in the frequency of infections and in CD8(+) and CD4(+)cells as well as the CD4(+) chemo-attractant cytokine IL-16 in the airways. Here, we investigated whether tobacco smoke depletes intracellular IL-16 protein and inhibits de novo production of IL-16 in CD8(+) cells from human airways and blood, while at the same time increasing extracellular IL-16 and whether oxygen free radicals (OFR) are involved. Intracellular IL-16 protein in CD8(+) cells and mRNA in all cells was decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from chronic smokers. This was also the case in human blood CD8(+) cells exposed to water-soluble tobacco smoke components in vitro; in which oxidized proteins were markedly increased. Extracellular IL-16 protein was increased in cell-free BAL fluid from chronic smokers and in human blood CD8(+) cells exposed to water-soluble tobacco smoke components in vitro. This was not observed in occasional smokers after short-term exposure to tobacco smoke. A marker of activation (CD69) was slightly increased whereas other markers of key cellular functions (membrane integrity, apoptosis and proliferation) in human blood CD8(+) cells in vitro were negatively affected by water-soluble tobacco smoke components. An OFR scavenger prevented these effects whereas a protein synthesis inhibitor, a beta-adrenoceptor, a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, a phosphodiesterase, a calcineurin phosphatase and a caspase-3 inhibitor did not. In conclusion, tobacco smoke depletes preformed intracellular IL-16 protein, inhibits its de novo synthesis and distorts key cellular functions in human CD8(+) cells. OFR may play a key role in this context.
  • Andersson, Bodil T., et al. (författare)
  • Radiographers' areas of professional competence related to good nursing care
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 22:3, s. 401-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Radiographers' ability and competence is a matter of vital importance for patients. Nursing care is an integral part of the radiographer's work. The demand for high competence in clinical activities has increased in diagnostic radiology and has had an impact on the development of the profession.AIM: The aim was to describe the radiographer's areas of professional competence in relation to good nursing care based on critical incidents that occur in the course of radiological examinations and interventions.METHOD: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique was employed. Interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of registered radiographers (n = 14), based at different hospitals in Sweden.ETHICAL ISSUES: The appropriate ethical principles were followed. All the participants provided informed consent, and formal approval for conducting the research was obtained according to national and local directives.RESULTS: The data analysis resulted in two main areas; direct and indirect patient-related areas of competence, which describe the radiographers' skills that either facilitate or hinder good nursing care. In the direct patient-related area of competence, four categories emerged, which illustrate good nursing care in the patient's immediate surroundings. In the indirect patient-related area of competence, four categories illuminated good nursing care that is provided without direct contact with the patient.CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the different areas of the radiographer's unique professional competence. The findings provide insight into the radiographer's profession, on one hand as a carer and on the other as a medical technologist as well as highlighting the importance of each role. The radiographer's work encompasses a variety of components--from caring for the patient to handling and checking the technical equipment.
  • Andersson, Jennie, et al. (författare)
  • Design as Information : How May Design and Information Relate?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal. - 1833-1874. ; 3:4, s. 161-172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to Pettersson, design may be a process and/or the result of the process, a product. The area of design is multidisciplinary and involves several notions. One is in the subject field of Information Design, which includes language, communication, art, cognition and information science. These disciplines refer to the concept of information differently. There is therefore a need for a fruitful theory of information, terms and concepts in order to enrich the reasoning of design as information. Bates presents a definition of information and several fundamental information forms. There, she offers a theoretical framework, the main core of which is that information may take different forms related to architecture, graphic design, interior design, and interface design, etc. Such a framework may contribute to understanding the meaning of design. Bates’ theory is applied in a study involving spatial design in industrial environments. The conclusions of the study illustrates how design and information relate to a design process and a design product that enriches the understanding of the meaning of design.
  • Andersson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Trafikverket överväger att tillåta längre och tyngre fordon på vägarna förutsatt att de inte påverkar trafiksäkerheten negativt. Syftet med studien var att undersöka säkerhetseffekten av fordonslängd, speciellt med avseende på olycksrisken vid omkörningar. Intervjuade förare av en 30-meters timmerbil hade inte upplevt de farhågor som förare av normallånga lastbilar uttryckt i samband med trånga rondeller och korsningar, men de nämner betydelsen av stödjande åkeri, arbetsmiljö och fordonsutrustning. En simulatorstudie studerade bilförares omkörningar av ett 30- och ett 18,75-metersfordon på en 2+1-väg i situationen då två körfält går ihop till ett. Tidluckan till ett återstående körfält var i genomsnitt 0,2 s (sign.) kortare efter omkörningar av 30-metersfordonet i situationer då bakänden var i samma relativa position som för 18,75-metersfordonet vid början av omkörningen. En fältstudie analyserade videoinspelade omkörningar av en 30- och en 24-meters timmerbil på en 2+1-väg och en tvåfältig väg. Ingen signifikant skillnad i tidluckor kunde påvisas mellan omkörningar av de två fordonen för någon av vägtyperna. Det senare resultatet ska dock tolkas med försiktighet på grund av ojämnt distribuerad data som insamlats under specifika förhållanden. Slutsatserna är att det finns en liten tendens till negativ säkerhetseffekt vid omkörningar av längre fordon, och att fler fältstudier är nödvändiga.
  • Knorpp, Carina, et al. (författare)
  • Structure and mutational analysis of s plant mitochondrial Nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Identification of residues involved in serine phosphorylation and oligomerization
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Plant Physiology. - 0032-0889. ; 2004 136, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first crystal structure of a plant (Pisum sativum L. cv Oregon sugarpod) mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Similar to other eukaryotic nucleoside diphosphate kinases, the plant enzyme is a hexamer; the six monomers in the asymmetric unit are arranged as trimers of dimers. Different functions of the kinase have been correlated with the oligomeric structure and the phosphorylation of Ser residues. We show that the occurrence of Ser autophosphorylation depends on enzymatic activity. The mutation of the strictly conserved Ser-119 to Ala reduced the Ser phosphorylation to about one-half of that observed in wild type with only a modest change of enzyme activity. We also show that mutating another strictly conserved Ser, Ser-69, to Ala reduces the enzyme activity to 6% and 14% of wild-type using dCDP and dTDP as acceptors, respectively. Changes in the oligomerization pattern of the S69A mutant were observed by cross-linking experiments. A reduction in trimer formation and a change in the dimer interaction could be detected with a concomitant increase of tetramers. We conclude that the S69 mutant is involved in the stabilization of the oligomeric state of this plant nucleoside diphosphate kinase
  • Anderhag, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Syften och tillfälligheter i högstadie- och gymnasielaborationen: en studie om hur elever handlar i relation till aktivitetens mål
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: NorDiNa : Nordic Studies in Science Education. - 1504-4556. ; 10:1, s. 63-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies have shown that students’ awareness of the goals and purposes of the laboratory activity is important for their possibility to participate in and learn from the activity. While practical activities often have been considered to be a central part of science education, relatively few studies have examined laboratory work in situ. In this paper we addressed these issues by examining (a) what purposes are distinguished when students’ work with a laboratory assignment and (b) how these purposes are made continuous with the teacher’s aim with the assignment. The data was based on classroom observations from two ordinary laboratory settings, one from a chemistry class in lower secondary school and one from a physics class in the natural science programme in upper secondary school. Although both student groups acknowledged their teacher’s intentions with the practical and could act towards the more student centered purposes of the activity, e.g. describe what happens with the copper and measure the speed of a small vessel respectively, there were differences regarding the possibilities the students had to act toward the activity’s final aim. The results showed that these factors can be referred to the amount of purposes introduced by the teacher as well as those that arose because of contingences, and the connection of these purposes to students’ prior experiences
  • Andersson, Annika K., et al. (författare)
  • Cytokine-induced PGE2 formation is reduced from iNOS deficient murine islets
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. - 0303-7207. ; 220:1-2, s. 21-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytokines may be involved in islet destruction during Type 1 diabetes. Exposure to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or IL-1beta plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) of rodent islets induces expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Subsequent formation of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) may impair beta-cell function. Using iNOS deficient (iNOS -/-) islets, we have further investigated the relation between NO formation and PGE(2) induction. We found that iNOS -/- islets responded with a reduced PGE(2) formation following IL-1beta or (IL-1beta + IFN-gamma) treatment compared to wild-type (wt) islets, while COX-2 mRNA or protein content were unchanged. By the addition of an NO donor together with IL-1beta, PGE(2) formation could be stimulated from iNOS -/- islets. We conclude that the lowered capacity of PGE(2) formation observed from cytokine exposed iNOS -/- islets is due to a decreased stimulation of PGE(2) formation by the COX-2 enzyme in the absence of NO, rather then differences in expressed COX-2 protein.
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