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1.
2.
  • Andersson, Swen-Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Managing localized prostate cancer by radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: : Cost analysis of a randomized trial (SPCG-4)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY AND NEPHROLOGY. - Informa Healthcare. - 0036-5599. ; 45:3, s. 177-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The cost of radical prostatectomy (RP) compared to watchful waiting (WW) has never been estimated in a randomized trial. The goal of this study was to estimate long-term total costs per patient associated with RP and WW arising from inpatient and outpatient hospital care. Material and methods. This investigation used the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) trial, comparing RP to WW, and included data from 212 participants living in two counties in Sweden from 1989 to 1999 (105 randomized to WW and 107 to RP). All costs were included from randomization date until death or end of follow-up in July 2007. Resource use arising from inpatient and outpatient hospital costs was measured in physical units and multiplied by a unit cost to come up with a total cost per patient. Results. During a median follow-up of 12 years, the overall cost in the RP group was 34% higher (p andlt; 0.01) than in the WW group, corresponding to euroa,not sign6123 in Sweden. The difference was driven almost exclusively by the cost of the surgical procedure. The cost difference between RP and WW was two times higher among men with low (2--6) than among those with high (7--10) Gleason score. Conclusion. In this economic evaluation of RP versus WW of localized prostate cancer in a randomized study, RP was associated with 34% higher costs. This difference, attributed exclusively to the cost of the RP procedure, was not overcome during extended follow-up.
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3.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical Prostatectomy or Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 370:10, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundRadical prostatectomy reduces mortality among men with localized prostate cancer; however, important questions regarding long-term benefit remain. MethodsBetween 1989 and 1999, we randomly assigned 695 men with early prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical prostatectomy and followed them through the end of 2012. The primary end points in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) were death from any cause, death from prostate cancer, and the risk of metastases. Secondary end points included the initiation of androgen-deprivation therapy. ResultsDuring 23.2 years of follow-up, 200 of 347 men in the surgery group and 247 of the 348 men in the watchful-waiting group died. Of the deaths, 63 in the surgery group and 99 in the watchful-waiting group were due to prostate cancer; the relative risk was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.77; P=0.001), and the absolute difference was 11.0 percentage points (95% CI, 4.5 to 17.5). The number needed to treat to prevent one death was 8. One man died after surgery in the radical-prostatectomy group. Androgen-deprivation therapy was used in fewer patients who underwent prostatectomy (a difference of 25.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 17.7 to 32.3). The benefit of surgery with respect to death from prostate cancer was largest in men younger than 65 years of age (relative risk, 0.45) and in those with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (relative risk, 0.38). However, radical prostatectomy was associated with a reduced risk of metastases among older men (relative risk, 0.68; P=0.04). ConclusionsExtended follow-up confirmed a substantial reduction in mortality after radical prostatectomy; the number needed to treat to prevent one death continued to decrease when the treatment was modified according to age at diagnosis and tumor risk. A large proportion of long-term survivors in the watchful-waiting group have not required any palliative treatment. (Funded by the Swedish Cancer Society and others.) The randomized Swedish trial of prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in disease detected mainly clinically (not by PSA screening) continues to show a benefit for early prostatectomy. The number of men younger than 65 needed to treat to prevent one death is now four. The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4), a randomized trial of radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in men with localized prostate cancer diagnosed before the era of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, showed a survival benefit of radical prostatectomy as compared with observation at 15 years of follow-up.(1) By contrast, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in the early era of PSA testing, showed that radical prostatectomy did not significantly reduce prostate cancer-specific or overall mortality after 12 years.(2) PSA screening profoundly changes the clinical domain of study. Among other considerations, the substantial additional lead time ...
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4.
  • Svensson, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The Norway spruce genome sequence and conifer genome evolution
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 497:7451, s. 579-584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Conifers have dominated forests for more than 200 million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. Here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. The number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, and there is no evidence of a recent whole-genome duplication in the gymnosperm lineage. Instead, the large genome size seems to result from the slow and steady accumulation of a diverse set of long-terminal repeat transposable elements, possibly owing to the lack of an efficient elimination mechanism. Comparative sequencing of Pinus sylvestris, Abies sibirica, Juniperus communis, Taxus baccata and Gnetum gnemon reveals that the transposable element diversity is shared among extant conifers. Expression of 24-nucleotide small RNAs, previously implicated in transposable element silencing, is tissue-specific and much lower than in other plants. We further identify numerous long (>10,000 base pairs) introns, gene-like fragments, uncharacterized long non-coding RNAs and short RNAs. This opens up new genomic avenues for conifer forestry and breeding.
5.
  • Tonpheng, Bounphanh, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Tensile strength and young's modulus of polyisoprene/single-wall carbon nanotube composites increased by high pressure cross-linking
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Macromolecules. - American Chemical Society. - 0024-9297. ; 43:18, s. 7680-7688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-viscosity liquid cis-1,4 polyisoprene (PI), with up to 20 wt % single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), has been cross-linked by high pressure and high temperature (HP&HT) treatment at 513 K and pressures in the range 0.5 to 1.5 GPa to yield densified network polymer composites. A composite with 5 wt % SWCNTs showed 2.2 times higher tensile strength σUTS (σUTS = 17 MPa), 2.3 times higher Young’s modulus E (E = 220 MPa) and longer extension at break than pure PI. The improvement is attributed to SWCNT reinforcement and improved SWCNT−PI interfacial contact as a result of the HP&HT cross-linking process, and reduced brittleness despite a higher measured cross-link density than that of pure PI. The latter may originate from an effect similar to crazing, i.e., bridging of microcracks by polymer fibrils. We surmise that the higher cross-link densities of the composites are due mainly to physical cross-links/constraints caused by the SWCNT−PI interaction, which also reflects the improved interfacial contact, and that the CNTs promote material flow by disrupting an otherwise chemically cross-linked network. We also deduce that the PI density increase at HP&HT cross-linking is augmented by the presence of CNTs.
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6.
  • Torring, Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy after Treatment for Graves' Hyperthyroidism with Antithyroid Drugs or Iodine-131.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 94, s. 3700-3707
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Previous randomized trials have suggested an association between radioiodine treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of worsening or development of TAO in patients who were treated with radioiodine or antithyroid drugs. Design: We conducted a randomized trial (TT 96) with a follow-up of 4 yr. Patients, Setting, and Intervention: Patients with a recent diagnosis of Graves' hyperthyroidism were randomized to treatment with iodine-131 (163 patients) or 18 months of medical treatment (150 patients). Early substitution with T4 was given in both groups. Main Outcome Measure: Worsening or development of TAO was significantly more common in the iodine-131 treatment group (63 patients; 38.7%) compared with the medical treatment group (32 patients; 21.3%) (P < 0.001). Results: The risk for de novo development of TAO was greater in patients treated with iodine-131 (53 patients) than with medical treatment (23 patients). However, worsening of TAO in the 41 patients who had ophthalmopathy already before the start of treatment was not more common in the radioiodine group (10 patients) than in the medical group (nine patients). Smoking was shown to influence the risk of worsening or development of TAO, and smokers treated with radioiodine had the overall highest risk for TAO. However, in the group of smokers, worsening or development of TAO was not significantly associated with the choice of treatment for hyperthyroidism. Conclusions: Radioiodine treatment is a significant risk factor for development of TAO in Graves' hyperthyroidism. Smokers run the highest risk for worsening or development of TAO irrespective of treatment modality.
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7.
  • Akesson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary cadmium exposure and prostate cancer incidence : a population-based prospective cohort study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920. ; 21:5, s. 895-900
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Experimental data convincingly propose the toxic metal cadmium as a prostate carcinogen. Cadmium is widely dispersed into the environment and, consequently, food is contaminated.METHODS: A population-based cohort of 41 089 Swedish men aged 45-79 years was followed prospectively from 1998 through 2009 to assess the association between food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1998) and incidence of prostate cancer (3085 cases, of which 894 were localised and 794 advanced) and through 2008 for prostate cancer mortality (326 fatal cases).RESULTS: Mean dietary cadmium exposure was 19 μg per day±s.d. 3.7. Multivariable-adjusted dietary cadmium exposure was positively associated with overall prostate cancer, comparing extreme tertiles; rate ratio (RR) 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.24). For subtypes of prostate cancer, the RR was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.08-1.53) for localised, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.87-1.25) for advanced, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.86-1.51) for fatal cases. No statistically significant difference was observed in the multivariable-adjusted risk estimates between tumour subtypes (P(heterogeneity)=0.27). For localised prostate cancer, RR was 1.55 (1.16-2.08) among men with a small waist circumference and RR 1.45 (1.15, 1.83) among ever smokers.CONCLUSION: Our findings provide support that dietary cadmium exposure may have a role in prostate cancer development.
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8.
  • Alm, Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of thermally induced microcracks in rock materials
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: Proceedings : Appendix / International Conference on Subsurface Heat Storage in Theory and Practice, Stockholm, June 6-8, 1983. - Stockholm : Statens råd för byggnadsforskning. - 91-540-3907-x ; 338-342
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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9.
  • Almgren, Torbjörn, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes in treated hypertension is common and carries a high cardiovascular risk: results from a 28-year follow-up.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of hypertension. - 0263-6352. ; 25:6, s. 1311-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse predictive factors for development of type 2 diabetes during life-long therapy for hypertension and the alleged additional cardiovascular risk this constitutes. METHODS: The study group (n = 754) comprised the hypertensive subgroup of a randomized population sample of 7500 men, aged 47-54 years, screened for cardiovascular risk factors and followed for 25-28 years. The patients were treated with thiazide diuretics and beta-adrenergic blocking drugs with the addition of hydralazin during the first decade. Calcium antagonists were substituted for hydralazin and, if needed, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were added when these drugs became available. RESULTS: A total of 148 (20.4%) treated hypertensive patients developed diabetes during 25 years, and in multivariate Cox regression analysis body mass index, serum triglycerides and treatment with beta-blockers were positively related with this complication. New-onset diabetes implied a significantly increased risk for stroke [hazard ratio (HR): 1.67; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.1-2.6; P < 0.05], myocardial infarction (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5; P < 0.05) and mortality (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9; P < 0.05). The greatest risk for stroke was new-onset diabetes, followed by smoking (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1-2.2; P = 0.07) and the greatest risk for myocardial infarction was new-onset diabetes, followed by smoking (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4; P < 0.01). The greatest risk for mortality was smoking (HR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2; P < 0.005). Achieved systolic and diastolic blood pressure were not predictive of cardiovascular complications or death. The mean observation time from onset of diabetes mellitus to a first stroke was 9.1 years and to a first myocardial infarction 9.3 years. CONCLUSION: Diabetes in treated hypertensive patients is alarmingly common and carries a high risk for cardiovascular complications and mortality.
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10.
  • Almgren, T., et al. (författare)
  • Stroke and coronary heart disease in treated hypertension -- a prospective cohort study over three decades
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Intern Med. - 0954-6820. ; 257:6, s. 496-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in middle-aged hypertensive men with initially nonhypertensive men derived from the same random population sample, and to study stroke morbidity in these men in relation to cardiovascular risk factors during 25-28 years of follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based observational study in men where the main intervention effort was directed towards treatment of hypertension in a special outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 754 hypertensive men aged 47-55 years at screening were compared with 6740 men with normal blood pressure. The hypertensive men got stepped care treatment with either beta-blockers, thiazide diuretics, or combination treatment including vasodilating agents during the whole observational period. Data on cause-specific mortality and morbidity, and all cause mortality were obtained from patient files and the national registers on mortality and hospital admissions respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline and change of cardiovascular risk factors during the first 15 years of follow-up and all cause mortality, and mortality and morbidity from stroke and coronary heart disease during 25-28 years. RESULTS: Treated hypertensive men had their blood pressure reduced with 21/15 mmHg during the first 5 years of the study and mean blood pressure levels were then rather constant. A minor reduction of serum cholesterol was also observed and a significant reduction in the prevalence of smoking. Treated hypertensive men suffered a substantial increased incidence of cardiovascular complications that escalated during the latter course of the study. Their total incidence of stroke was doubled; they had 50% more myocardial infarctions (MIs); mortality from coronary heart disease was doubled and all cause mortality was increased by a third, compared with nonhypertensive. In multiple regression analysis the incidence of stroke was significantly related to smoking and diabetes at entry and in time-dependent Cox's regression analysis it was significantly related only to smoking. There was no relationship observed between achieved systolic or diastolic blood pressure and the risk of stroke or MI nor was there any relationship between the change in blood pressure and such cardiovascular complications. CONCLUSION: In spite of a substantial reduction of their blood pressure, treated hypertensive middle-aged men had a highly increased risk of stroke, MI and mortality from coronary heart disease compared with nonhypertensive men of similar age. The increased risk of cardiovascular complications escalated during the latter course of the study.
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