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Sökning: WFRF:(Andersson Ove)

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  • Hagiwara, Magnus A., et al. (författare)
  • The effect of a Computerised Decision Support System (CDSS) on compliance with the prehospital assessment process: results of an interrupted time-series study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. - 1472-6947. ; 14:70, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Errors in the decision-making process are probably the main threat to patient safety in the prehospital setting. The reason can be the change of focus in prehospital care from the traditional "scoop and run" practice to a more complex assessment and this new focus imposes real demands on clinical judgment. The use of Clinical Guidelines (CG) is a common strategy for cognitively supporting the prehospital providers. However, there are studies that suggest that the compliance with CG in some cases is low in the prehospital setting. One possible way to increase compliance with guidelines could be to introduce guidelines in a Computerized Decision Support System (CDSS). There is limited evidence relating to the effect of CDSS in a prehospital setting. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CDSS on compliance with the basic assessment process described in the prehospital CG and the effect of On Scene Time (OST).METHODS:In this time-series study, data from prehospital medical records were collected on a weekly basis during the study period. Medical records were rated with the guidance of a rating protocol and data on OST were collected. The difference between baseline and the intervention period was assessed by a segmented regression.RESULTS:In this study, 371 patients were included. Compliance with the assessment process described in the prehospital CG was stable during the baseline period. Following the introduction of the CDSS, compliance rose significantly. The post-intervention slope was stable. The CDSS had no significant effect on OST.CONCLUSIONS:The use of CDSS in prehospital care has the ability to increase compliance with the assessment process of patients with a medical emergency. This study was unable to demonstrate any effects of OST.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical Prostatectomy or Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 370:10, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundRadical prostatectomy reduces mortality among men with localized prostate cancer; however, important questions regarding long-term benefit remain. MethodsBetween 1989 and 1999, we randomly assigned 695 men with early prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical prostatectomy and followed them through the end of 2012. The primary end points in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) were death from any cause, death from prostate cancer, and the risk of metastases. Secondary end points included the initiation of androgen-deprivation therapy. ResultsDuring 23.2 years of follow-up, 200 of 347 men in the surgery group and 247 of the 348 men in the watchful-waiting group died. Of the deaths, 63 in the surgery group and 99 in the watchful-waiting group were due to prostate cancer; the relative risk was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.77; P=0.001), and the absolute difference was 11.0 percentage points (95% CI, 4.5 to 17.5). The number needed to treat to prevent one death was 8. One man died after surgery in the radical-prostatectomy group. Androgen-deprivation therapy was used in fewer patients who underwent prostatectomy (a difference of 25.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 17.7 to 32.3). The benefit of surgery with respect to death from prostate cancer was largest in men younger than 65 years of age (relative risk, 0.45) and in those with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (relative risk, 0.38). However, radical prostatectomy was associated with a reduced risk of metastases among older men (relative risk, 0.68; P=0.04). ConclusionsExtended follow-up confirmed a substantial reduction in mortality after radical prostatectomy; the number needed to treat to prevent one death continued to decrease when the treatment was modified according to age at diagnosis and tumor risk. A large proportion of long-term survivors in the watchful-waiting group have not required any palliative treatment. (Funded by the Swedish Cancer Society and others.) The randomized Swedish trial of prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in disease detected mainly clinically (not by PSA screening) continues to show a benefit for early prostatectomy. The number of men younger than 65 needed to treat to prevent one death is now four. The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4), a randomized trial of radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in men with localized prostate cancer diagnosed before the era of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, showed a survival benefit of radical prostatectomy as compared with observation at 15 years of follow-up.(1) By contrast, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in the early era of PSA testing, showed that radical prostatectomy did not significantly reduce prostate cancer-specific or overall mortality after 12 years.(2) PSA screening profoundly changes the clinical domain of study. Among other considerations, the substantial additional lead time ...
  • Davidsson, Sabina, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Frequency and typing of Propionibacterium acnes in prostate tissue obtained from men with and without prostate cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Infectious Agents and Cancer. - London, United Kingdom : BioMed Central. - 1750-9378. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Western countries but the exact pathogenic mechanism of the disease is still largely unknown. An infectious etiology and infection-induced inflammation has been suggested to play a role in prostate carcinogenesis and Propionibacterium acnes has been reported as the most prevalent microorganism in prostatic tissue. We investigated the frequency and types of P. acnes isolated from prostate tissue samples from men with prostate cancer and from control patients without the disease.Methods: We included 100 cases and 50 controls in this study. Cases were men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and controls were men undergoing surgery for bladder cancer without any histological findings of prostate cancer. Six biopsies taken from each patient's prostate gland at the time of surgery were used for cultivation and further characterization of P. acnes.Results: The results revealed that P. acnes was more common in men with prostate carcinoma than in controls, with the bacteria cultured in 60 % of the cases vs. 26 % of the controls (p = 0.001). In multivariable analyses, men with P. acnes had a 4-fold increase in odds of a prostate cancer diagnosis after adjustment for age, calendar year of surgery and smoking status (OR: 4.46; 95 % CI: 1.93-11.26). To further support the biologic plausibility for a P. acnes infection as a contributing factor in prostate cancer development, we subsequently conducted cell-based experiments. P. acnes- isolates were co-cultured with the prostate cell line PNT1A. An increased cell proliferation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in infected cells was observed.Conclusion: The present study provides further evidence for a role of P. acnes in prostate cancer development.
  • Nystedt, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • The Norway spruce genome sequence and conifer genome evolution
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 497:7451, s. 579-584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Conifers have dominated forests for more than 200 million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. Here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. The number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, and there is no evidence of a recent whole-genome duplication in the gymnosperm lineage. Instead, the large genome size seems to result from the slow and steady accumulation of a diverse set of long-terminal repeat transposable elements, possibly owing to the lack of an efficient elimination mechanism. Comparative sequencing of Pinus sylvestris, Abies sibirica, Juniperus communis, Taxus baccata and Gnetum gnemon reveals that the transposable element diversity is shared among extant conifers. Expression of 24-nucleotide small RNAs, previously implicated in transposable element silencing, is tissue-specific and much lower than in other plants. We further identify numerous long (>10,000 base pairs) introns, gene-like fragments, uncharacterized long non-coding RNAs and short RNAs. This opens up new genomic avenues for conifer forestry and breeding.
  • Rafati, Nima, et al. (författare)
  • Large Deletions at the SHOX Locus in the Pseudoautosomal Region Are Associated with Skeletal Atavism in Shetland Ponies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: G3 : Genes, Genomes, Genetics. - 2160-1836 .- 2160-1836. ; 6:7, s. 2213-2223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Skeletal atavism in Shetland ponies is a heritable disorder characterized by abnormal growth of the ulna and fibula that extend the carpal and tarsal joints, respectively. This causes abnormal skeletal structure and impaired movements, and affected foals are usually killed. In order to identify the causal mutation we subjected six confirmed Swedish cases and a DNA pool consisting of 21 control individuals to whole genome resequencing. We screened for polymorphisms where the cases and the control pool were fixed for opposite alleles and observed this signature for only 25 SNPs, most of which were scattered on genome assembly unassigned scaffolds. Read depth analysis at these loci revealed homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for two partially overlapping large deletions in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of chromosome X/Y in cases but not in the control pool. One of these deletions removes the entire coding region of the SHOX gene and both deletions remove parts of the CRLF2 gene located downstream of SHOX. The horse reference assembly of the PAR is highly fragmented, and in order to characterize this region we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. This considerably improved the assembly and enabled size estimations of the two deletions to 1602180 kb and 60280 kb, respectively. Complete association between the presence of these deletions and disease status was verified in eight other affected horses. The result of the present study is consistent with previous studies in humans showing crucial importance of SHOX for normal skeletal development.
  • Tonpheng, Bounphanh, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Tensile strength and young's modulus of polyisoprene/single-wall carbon nanotube composites increased by high pressure cross-linking
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Macromolecules. - American Chemical Society. - 0024-9297. ; 43:18, s. 7680-7688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-viscosity liquid cis-1,4 polyisoprene (PI), with up to 20 wt % single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), has been cross-linked by high pressure and high temperature (HP&HT) treatment at 513 K and pressures in the range 0.5 to 1.5 GPa to yield densified network polymer composites. A composite with 5 wt % SWCNTs showed 2.2 times higher tensile strength σUTS (σUTS = 17 MPa), 2.3 times higher Young’s modulus E (E = 220 MPa) and longer extension at break than pure PI. The improvement is attributed to SWCNT reinforcement and improved SWCNT−PI interfacial contact as a result of the HP&HT cross-linking process, and reduced brittleness despite a higher measured cross-link density than that of pure PI. The latter may originate from an effect similar to crazing, i.e., bridging of microcracks by polymer fibrils. We surmise that the higher cross-link densities of the composites are due mainly to physical cross-links/constraints caused by the SWCNT−PI interaction, which also reflects the improved interfacial contact, and that the CNTs promote material flow by disrupting an otherwise chemically cross-linked network. We also deduce that the PI density increase at HP&HT cross-linking is augmented by the presence of CNTs.
  • Ali, I, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and prostate cancer population-based prospective cohort and experimental studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 37:12, s. 1144-1151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly persistent environmental pollutants and are undesirable components of our daily food. PCBs are classified as human carcinogens, but the evidence for prostate cancer is limited and available data are inconsistent. We explored the link between non-dioxin-like PCB and grade of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort as well as in cell experiments. A population-based cohort of 32496 Swedish men aged 45-79 years was followed prospectively through 1998-2011, to assess the association between validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and incidence of prostate cancer by grade (2789 cases, whereof 1276 low grade, 756 intermediate grade, 450 high grade) and prostate cancer mortality (357 fatal cases). In addition, we investigated a non-dioxin-like PCB153-induced cell invasion and related markers in normal prostate stem cells (WPE-stem) and in three different prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, DU145 and 22RV1) at exposure levels relevant to humans. After multivariable-adjustment, dietary PCB exposure was positively associated with high-grade prostate cancer, relative risk (RR) 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.76] and with fatal prostate cancer, RR 1.43 (95% CI: 1.05-1.95), comparing the highest tertile with the lowest. We observed no association with low or intermediate grade of prostate cancer. Cell invasion and related markers, including MMP9, MMP2, Slug and Snail, were significantly increased in human prostate cancer cells as well as in prostate stem cells after exposure to PCB153. Our findings both from the observational and experimental studies suggest a role of non-dioxin-like PCB153 in the development of high-grade and fatal prostate cancer.
  • Alm, Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of thermally induced microcracks in rock materials
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: Proceedings : Appendix / International Conference on Subsurface Heat Storage in Theory and Practice, Stockholm, June 6-8, 1983. - Stockholm : Statens råd för byggnadsforskning. - 91-540-3907-x ; s. 338-342
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
  • Almgren, Torbjörn, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes in treated hypertension is common and carries a high cardiovascular risk: results from a 28-year follow-up.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of hypertension. - 0263-6352. ; 25:6, s. 1311-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse predictive factors for development of type 2 diabetes during life-long therapy for hypertension and the alleged additional cardiovascular risk this constitutes. METHODS: The study group (n = 754) comprised the hypertensive subgroup of a randomized population sample of 7500 men, aged 47-54 years, screened for cardiovascular risk factors and followed for 25-28 years. The patients were treated with thiazide diuretics and beta-adrenergic blocking drugs with the addition of hydralazin during the first decade. Calcium antagonists were substituted for hydralazin and, if needed, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were added when these drugs became available. RESULTS: A total of 148 (20.4%) treated hypertensive patients developed diabetes during 25 years, and in multivariate Cox regression analysis body mass index, serum triglycerides and treatment with beta-blockers were positively related with this complication. New-onset diabetes implied a significantly increased risk for stroke [hazard ratio (HR): 1.67; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.1-2.6; P < 0.05], myocardial infarction (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5; P < 0.05) and mortality (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9; P < 0.05). The greatest risk for stroke was new-onset diabetes, followed by smoking (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1-2.2; P = 0.07) and the greatest risk for myocardial infarction was new-onset diabetes, followed by smoking (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4; P < 0.01). The greatest risk for mortality was smoking (HR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2; P < 0.005). Achieved systolic and diastolic blood pressure were not predictive of cardiovascular complications or death. The mean observation time from onset of diabetes mellitus to a first stroke was 9.1 years and to a first myocardial infarction 9.3 years. CONCLUSION: Diabetes in treated hypertensive patients is alarmingly common and carries a high risk for cardiovascular complications and mortality.
  • Almgren, T., et al. (författare)
  • Stroke and coronary heart disease in treated hypertension -- a prospective cohort study over three decades
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Intern Med. - 0954-6820 (Print). ; 257:6, s. 496-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in middle-aged hypertensive men with initially nonhypertensive men derived from the same random population sample, and to study stroke morbidity in these men in relation to cardiovascular risk factors during 25-28 years of follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based observational study in men where the main intervention effort was directed towards treatment of hypertension in a special outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 754 hypertensive men aged 47-55 years at screening were compared with 6740 men with normal blood pressure. The hypertensive men got stepped care treatment with either beta-blockers, thiazide diuretics, or combination treatment including vasodilating agents during the whole observational period. Data on cause-specific mortality and morbidity, and all cause mortality were obtained from patient files and the national registers on mortality and hospital admissions respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline and change of cardiovascular risk factors during the first 15 years of follow-up and all cause mortality, and mortality and morbidity from stroke and coronary heart disease during 25-28 years. RESULTS: Treated hypertensive men had their blood pressure reduced with 21/15 mmHg during the first 5 years of the study and mean blood pressure levels were then rather constant. A minor reduction of serum cholesterol was also observed and a significant reduction in the prevalence of smoking. Treated hypertensive men suffered a substantial increased incidence of cardiovascular complications that escalated during the latter course of the study. Their total incidence of stroke was doubled; they had 50% more myocardial infarctions (MIs); mortality from coronary heart disease was doubled and all cause mortality was increased by a third, compared with nonhypertensive. In multiple regression analysis the incidence of stroke was significantly related to smoking and diabetes at entry and in time-dependent Cox's regression analysis it was significantly related only to smoking. There was no relationship observed between achieved systolic or diastolic blood pressure and the risk of stroke or MI nor was there any relationship between the change in blood pressure and such cardiovascular complications. CONCLUSION: In spite of a substantial reduction of their blood pressure, treated hypertensive middle-aged men had a highly increased risk of stroke, MI and mortality from coronary heart disease compared with nonhypertensive men of similar age. The increased risk of cardiovascular complications escalated during the latter course of the study.
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