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  • Beral, V, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer - collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58515 women with breast cancer and 95067 women without the disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 87:11, s. 1234-1245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19 - 1.45, P < 0.00001) for an intake of 35 - 44 g per day alcohol, and 1.46 (1.33 - 1.61, P < 0.00001) for greater than or equal to 45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1 % per 10 g per day, P < 0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers= 1.03, 95% CI 0.98 - 1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92 - 1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were the findings materially confounded by any of these factors. If the observed relationship for alcohol is causal, these results suggest that about 4% of the breast cancers in developed countries are attributable to alcohol. In developing countries, where alcohol consumption among controls averaged only 0.4 g per day, alcohol would have a negligible effect on the incidence of breast cancer. In conclusion, smoking has little or no independent effect on the risk of developing breast cancer; the effect of alcohol on breast cancer needs to be interpreted in the context of its beneficial effects, in moderation, on cardiovascular disease and its harmful effects on cirrhosis and cancers of the mouth, larynx, oesophagus and liver. (C) 2002 Cancer Research UK.
  • Key, Timothy J., et al. (författare)
  • Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk : pooled analysis of 15 studies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 102:5, s. 1142-1157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Individual studies have suggested that circulating carotenoids, retinol, or tocopherols may be associated with prostate cancer risk, but the studies have not been large enough to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by stage and grade of disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of the associations of the concentrations of 7 carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol with risk of prostate cancer and to describe whether any associations differ by stage or grade of the disease or other factors. Design: Principal investigators of prospective studies provided individual participant data for prostate cancer cases and controls. Risk by study-specific fifths of each biomarker was estimated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression in matched case-control sets. Results: Data were available for up to 11,239 cases (including 1654 advanced stage and 1741 aggressive) and 18,541 controls from 15 studies. Lycopene was not associated with overall risk of prostate cancer, but there was statistically significant heterogeneity by stage of disease, and the OR for aggressive disease for the highest compared with the lowest fifth of lycopene was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.91; P-trend = 0.032). No other carotenoid was significantly associated with overall risk of prostate cancer or with risk of advanced-stage or aggressive disease. For retinol, the OR for the highest compared with the lowest fifth was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.22; P-trend = 0.015). For alpha-tocopherol, the OR for the highest compared with the lowest fifth was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.94; P-trend < 0.001), with significant heterogeneity by stage of disease; the OR for aggressive prostate cancer was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.92; P-trend = 0.001). gamma-Tocopherol was not associated with risk. Conclusions: Overall prostate cancer risk was positively associated with retinol and inversely associated with alpha-tocopherol, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was inversely associated with lycopene and alpha-tocopherol. Whether these associations reflect causal relations is unclear.
  • Travis, Ruth C., et al. (författare)
  • A Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data Reveals an Association between Circulating Levels of IGF-I and Prostate Cancer Risk
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472. ; 76:8, s. 2288-2300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in prostate cancer development is not fully understood. To investigate the association between circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3) and prostate cancer risk, we pooled individual participant data from 17 prospective and two cross-sectional studies, including up to 10,554 prostate cancer cases and 13,618 control participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs for prostate cancer based on the study-specific fifth of each analyte. Overall, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were positively associated with prostate cancer risk (P-trend all <= 0.005), and IGFBP-1 was inversely associated weakly with risk (P-trend = 0.05). However, heterogeneity between the prospective and cross-sectional studies was evident (P-heterogeneity = 0.03), unless the analyses were restricted to prospective studies (with the exception of IGF-II, P-heterogeneity = 0.02). For prospective studies, the OR for men in the highest versus the lowest fifth of each analyte was 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.43) for IGF-I, 0.81 (0.68-0.96) for IGFBP-1, and 1.25 (1.12-1.40) for IGFBP-3. These associations did not differ significantly by time-to-diagnosis or tumor stage or grade. After mutual adjustment for each of the other analytes, only IGF-I remained associated with risk. Our collaborative study represents the largest pooled analysis of the relationship between prostate cancer risk and circulating concentrations of IGF-I, providing strong evidence that IGF-I is highly likely to be involved in prostate cancer development.
  • Crowe, Francesca L., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk : Individual Participant Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874. ; 106:9, s. dju240
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BackgroundIndividual studies have suggested that some circulating fatty acids are associated with prostate cancer risk, but have not been large enough to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by stage and grade of disease.MethodsPrincipal investigators of prospective studies on circulating fatty acids and prostate cancer were invited to collaborate. Investigators provided individual participant data on circulating fatty acids (weight percent) and other characteristics of prostate cancer cases and controls. Prostate cancer risk by study-specific fifths of 14 fatty acids was estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.ResultsFive thousand and ninety-eight case patients and 6649 control patients from seven studies with an average follow-up of 5.1 (SD = 3.3) years were included. Stearic acid (18: 0) was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] Q5 vs Q1 = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00, P-trend = .043). Prostate cancer risk was, respectively, 14% and 16% greater in the highest fifth of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.29, P-trend = .001) and docosapentaenoic acid (22: 5n-3) (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.33, P-trend = .003), but in each case there was heterogeneity between studies (P = .022 and P < .001, respectively). There was heterogeneity in the association between docosapentaenoic acid and prostate cancer by grade of disease (P = .006); the association was statistically significant for low-grade disease but not high-grade disease. The remaining 11 fatty acids were not statistically associated with total prostate cancer risk.ConclusionThere was no strong evidence that circulating fatty acids are important predictors of prostate cancer risk. It is not clear whether the modest associations of stearic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acid are causal.
  • Tsilidis, Konstantinos K., et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Hoboken, NJ, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136. ; 133:2, s. 495-504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested casecontrol studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (p<0.01), but not with IGFBP-3 concentrations (p>0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (p>0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance [SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5)-rs197056 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.001); SSTR5-rs197057 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.002)]. We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein.
  • Allen, Naomi E., et al. (författare)
  • Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 132:3, s. 635-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have suggested that dietary factors may be important in the development of bladder cancer. We examined macronutrient intake in relation to risk of urothelial cell carcinoma among 469,339 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by sex, age at recruitment and centre and further adjusted for smoking status and duration, body mass index and total energy intake. After an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 1,416 new cases of urothelial cell carcinoma were identified. After allowing for measurement error, a 3% increase in the consumption of energy intake from animal protein was associated with a 15% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 330%; ptrend = 0.01) and a 2% increase in energy from plant protein intake was associated with a 23% lower risk (95% CI: 367%, ptrend = 0.006). Dietary intake of fat, carbohydrate, fibre or calcium was not associated with risk. These findings suggest that animal and/or plant protein may affect the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma, and examination of these associations in other studies is needed.
  • Crowe, Francesca L., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Am J Clin Nutr. - 0002-9165. ; 87:5, s. 1405-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Findings from early observational studies have suggested that the intake of dietary fat might be a contributing factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear. Objective: The objectives were to assess whether intakes of dietary fat, subtypes of fat, and fat from animal products were associated with prostate cancer risk. Design: This was a multicenter prospective study of 142 520 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary fat intake was estimated with the use of country-specific validated food questionnaires. The association between dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer was assessed by using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment center and adjusted for height, weight, smoking, education, marital status, and energy intake. Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.7 y, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 2727 men. There was no significant association between dietary fat (total, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat) and risk of prostate cancer. The hazard ratio for prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest quintile of total fat intake was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.09; P for trend = 0.155). There were no significant associations between prostate cancer risk and fat from red meat, dairy products, and fish. Conclusion: The results from this large multicenter study suggest that there is no association between dietary fat and prostate cancer risk.
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