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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Atzmon Gil) srt2:(2014)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Atzmon Gil) > (2014)

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1.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 46:4, s. 357-357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ∼150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10(-4)). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.
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2.
  • Goldberg, Rachel, et al. (författare)
  • Role of Heparanase-Driven Inflammatory Cascade in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:12, s. 4302-4313
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Renal involvement is a major medical concern in the diabetic population, and with the global epidemic of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (DN) became the leading cause of end-stage renal failure in the Western world. Heparanase (the only known mammalian endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate) is essentially involved in DN pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the exact mode of heparanase action in sustaining the pathology of DN remains unclear. Here we describe a previously unrecognized combinatorial circuit of heparanase-driven molecular events promoting chronic inflammation and renal injury in individuals with DN. These events are fueled by heterotypic interactions among glomerular, tubular, and immune cell compartments, as well as diabetic milieu (DM) components. We found that under diabetic conditions latent heparanase, overexpressed by glomerular cells and posttranslationally activated by cathepsin L of tubular origin, sustains continuous activation of kidney-damaging macrophages by DM components, thus creating chronic inflammatory conditions and fostering macrophage-mediated renal injury. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying the enzyme action in diabetic kidney damage is critically important for the proper design and future implementation of heparanase-targeting therapeutic interventions (which are currently under intensive development and clinical testing) in individuals with DN and perhaps other complications of diabetes.
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