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1.
  • Peden, John F., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study in Europeans and South Asians identifies five new loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 43:4, s. 339-U89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified 11 common variants convincingly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD)(1-7), a modest number considering the apparent heritability of CAD(8). All of these variants have been discovered in European populations. We report a meta-analysis of four large genome-wide association studies of CAD, with similar to 575,000 genotyped SNPs in a discovery dataset comprising 15,420 individuals with CAD (cases) (8,424 Europeans and 6,996 South Asians) and 15,062 controls. There was little evidence for ancestry-specific associations, supporting the use of combined analyses. Replication in an independent sample of 21,408 cases and 19,185 controls identified five loci newly associated with CAD (P < 5 x 10(-8) in the combined discovery and replication analysis): LIPA on 10q23, PDGFD on 11q22, ADAMTS7-MORF4L1 on 15q25, a gene rich locus on 7q22 and KIAA1462 on 10p11. The CAD-associated SNP in the PDGFD locus showed tissue-specific cis expression quantitative trait locus effects. These findings implicate new pathways for CAD susceptibility.
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2.
  • Angelstam, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability: The Swedish Forest Stewardship Council Standard as a Case Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - 0044-7447. ; 42:2, s. 229-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards' ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC's ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.
3.
  • Axelsson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • The Early Chain of Care in Patients with Bacteraemia with the Emphasis on the Prehospital Setting.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. - 1049-023X. ; 31:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose There is a lack of knowledge about the early phase of severe infection. This report describes the early chain of care in bacteraemia as follows: (a) compare patients who were and were not transported by the Emergency Medical Services (EMS); (b) describe various aspects of the EMS chain; and (c) describe factors of importance for the delay to the start of intravenous antibiotics. It was hypothesized that, for patients with suspected sepsis judged by the EMS clinician, the delay until the onset of antibiotic treatment would be shorter. Basic Procedures All patients in the Municipality of Gothenburg (Sweden) with a positive blood culture, when assessed at the Laboratory of Bacteriology in the Municipality of Gothenburg, from February 1 through April 30, 2012 took part in the survey. Main Findings/Results In all, 696 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 76 years and 52% were men. Of all patients, 308 (44%) had been in contact with the EMS and/or the emergency department (ED). Of these 308 patients, 232 (75%) were transported by the EMS and 188 (61%) had "true pathogens" in blood cultures. Patients who were transported by the EMS were older, included more men, and suffered from more severe symptoms and signs. The EMS nurse suspected sepsis in only six percent of the cases. These patients had a delay from arrival at hospital until the start of antibiotics of one hour and 19 minutes versus three hours and 21 minutes among the remaining patients (P =.0006). The corresponding figures for cases with "true pathogens" were one hour and 19 minutes versus three hours and 15 minutes (P =.009).CONCLUSION: Among patients with bacteraemia, 75% used the EMS, and these patients were older, included more men, and suffered from more severe symptoms and signs. The EMS nurse suspected sepsis in six percent of cases. Regardless of whether or not patients with true pathogens were isolated, a suspicion of sepsis by the EMS clinician at the scene was associated with a shorter delay to the start of antibiotic treatment. Axelsson C , Herlitz J , Karlsson A , Sjöberg H , Jiménez-Herrera M , Bång A , Jonsson A , Bremer A , Andersson H , Gellerstedt M , Ljungström L . The early chain of care in patients with bacteraemia with the emphasis on the prehospital setting. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):1-6.
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4.
5.
  • Evans, Susan, et al. (författare)
  • Targeting Free Prostate-Specific Antigen for In Vivo Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using a Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Unique Epitopes Accessible on Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Alone.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals. - Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1557-8852. ; 27:4, s. 243-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated the feasibility of targeting the free, unbound forms of prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for in vivo imaging of prostate adenocarcinomas (PCa), as PSA is produced and secreted at abundance during every clinical stage and grade of PCa, including castration-resistant disease. We injected (125)I-labeled monoclonal antibody PSA30 (specific for an epitope uniquely accessible on fPSA alone) intravenously in male nude mice carrying subcutaneous xenografts of LNCaP tumors (n=36). Mice were sacrificed over a time course from 4 hours to 13 days after injecting (125)I-labeled PSA30. Tissue uptake of (125)I-PSA30 at 48 and 168 hours after intravenous injection was compared with two clinically used positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals, (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose ((18)F-FDG) or (18)F-choline, in cryosections using Digital AutoRadiography (DAR) and also compared with immunohistochemical staining of PSA and histopathology. On DAR, the areas with high (125)I-PSA30 uptake corresponded mainly to morphologically intact and PSA-producing LNCaP cells, but did not associate with the areas of high uptake of either (18)F-FDG or (18)F-choline. Biodistribution of (125)I-PSA30 measured in dissected organs ex vivo during 4 to 312 hours after intravenous injection demonstrated maximum selective tumor uptake 24-48 hours after antibody injection. Our data showed selective uptake in vivo of a monoclonal antibody highly specific for fPSA in LNCaP cells. Hence, in vivo imaging of fPSA may be feasible with putative usefulness in disseminated PCa.
6.
  • Gaines, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Six-week follow-up after HIV-1 exposure: a position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Infectious diseases (London, England). - 2374-4243. ; :sep 28, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2014 the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) conducted a review and analysis of the state of knowledge on the duration of follow-up after exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Up until then a follow-up of 12 weeks after exposure had been recommended, but improved tests and new information on early diagnosis motivated a re-evaluation of the national recommendations by experts representing infectious diseases and microbiology, county medical officers, the RAV, the Public Health Agency, and other national authorities. Based on the current state of knowledge the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the RAV recommend, starting in April 2015, a follow-up period of 6 weeks after possible HIV-1 exposure, if HIV testing is performed using laboratory-based combination tests detecting both HIV antibody and antigen. If point-of-care rapid HIV tests are used, a follow-up period of 8 weeks is recommended, because currently available rapid tests have insufficient sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 antigen. A follow-up period of 12 weeks is recommended after a possible exposure for HIV-2, since presently used assays do not include HIV-2 antigens and only limited information is available on the development of HIV antibodies during early HIV-2 infection. If pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis is administered, the follow-up period is recommended to begin after completion of prophylaxis. Even if infection cannot be reliably excluded before the end of the recommended follow-up period, HIV testing should be performed at first contact for persons who seek such testing.
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10.
  • Axelsson, Petter, et al. (författare)
  • Can leaf litter from genetically modified trees affect aquatic ecosystems?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print). - 1432-9840. ; 13:7, s. 1049-1059
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to potential benefits, biotechnology in silviculture may also be associated with environmental considerations, including effects on organisms associated with the living tree and on ecosystems and processes dependent on tree residue. We examined whether genetic modification of lignin characteristics (CAD and COMT) in Populus sp. affected leaf litter quality, the decomposition of leaf litter, and the assemblages of aquatic insects colonizing the litter in three natural streams. The decomposition of leaf litter from one of the genetically modified (GM) lines (CAD) was affected in ways that were comparable over streams and harvest dates. After 84 days in streams, CAD-litter had lost approximately 6.1% less mass than the non-GM litter. Genetic modification also affected the concentration of phenolics and carbon in the litter but this only partially explained the decomposition differences, suggesting that other factors were also involved. Insect community analyses comparing GM and non-GM litter showed no significant differences, and the two GM litters showed differences only in the 84-day litterbags. The total abundance and species richness of insects were also similar on GM and non-GM litter. The results presented here suggest that genetic modifications in trees can influence litter quality and thus have a potential to generate effects that can cross ecosystem boundaries and influence ecosystem processes not directly associated with the tree. Overall, the realized ecological effects of the GM tree varieties used here were nevertheless shown to be relatively small.
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