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1.
  • Peden, John F., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study in Europeans and South Asians identifies five new loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 43:4, s. 339-344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified 11 common variants convincingly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD)(1-7), a modest number considering the apparent heritability of CAD(8). All of these variants have been discovered in European populations. We report a meta-analysis of four large genome-wide association studies of CAD, with similar to 575,000 genotyped SNPs in a discovery dataset comprising 15,420 individuals with CAD (cases) (8,424 Europeans and 6,996 South Asians) and 15,062 controls. There was little evidence for ancestry-specific associations, supporting the use of combined analyses. Replication in an independent sample of 21,408 cases and 19,185 controls identified five loci newly associated with CAD (P < 5 x 10(-8) in the combined discovery and replication analysis): LIPA on 10q23, PDGFD on 11q22, ADAMTS7-MORF4L1 on 15q25, a gene rich locus on 7q22 and KIAA1462 on 10p11. The CAD-associated SNP in the PDGFD locus showed tissue-specific cis expression quantitative trait locus effects. These findings implicate new pathways for CAD susceptibility.
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2.
  • Angelstam, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - Springer Netherlands. - 0044-7447. ; 42:2, s. 229-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards’ ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC’s ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.
3.
  • Evans-Axelsson, Susan, et al. (författare)
  • Targeting Free Prostate-Specific Antigen for In Vivo Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using a Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Unique Epitopes Accessible on Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Alone.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals. - Mary Ann Liebert. - 1557-8852. ; 27:4, s. 243-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated the feasibility of targeting the free, unbound forms of prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for in vivo imaging of prostate adenocarcinomas (PCa), as PSA is produced and secreted at abundance during every clinical stage and grade of PCa, including castration-resistant disease. We injected (125)I-labeled monoclonal antibody PSA30 (specific for an epitope uniquely accessible on fPSA alone) intravenously in male nude mice carrying subcutaneous xenografts of LNCaP tumors (n=36). Mice were sacrificed over a time course from 4 hours to 13 days after injecting (125)I-labeled PSA30. Tissue uptake of (125)I-PSA30 at 48 and 168 hours after intravenous injection was compared with two clinically used positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals, (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose ((18)F-FDG) or (18)F-choline, in cryosections using Digital AutoRadiography (DAR) and also compared with immunohistochemical staining of PSA and histopathology. On DAR, the areas with high (125)I-PSA30 uptake corresponded mainly to morphologically intact and PSA-producing LNCaP cells, but did not associate with the areas of high uptake of either (18)F-FDG or (18)F-choline. Biodistribution of (125)I-PSA30 measured in dissected organs ex vivo during 4 to 312 hours after intravenous injection demonstrated maximum selective tumor uptake 24-48 hours after antibody injection. Our data showed selective uptake in vivo of a monoclonal antibody highly specific for fPSA in LNCaP cells. Hence, in vivo imaging of fPSA may be feasible with putative usefulness in disseminated PCa.
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5.
  • Meisgen, Sabrina, et al. (författare)
  • The HLA locus contains novel foetal susceptibility alleles for congenital heart block with significant paternal influence
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820. ; 275:6, s. 640-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to identify foetal susceptibility genes on chromosome six for Ro/SSA autoantibody-mediated congenital heart block.SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of individuals in the Swedish Congenital Heart Block (CHB) study population was performed. Low-resolution HLA-A, -Cw and -DRB1 allele typing was carried out in 86 families comprising 339 individuals (86 Ro/SSA autoantibody-positive mothers, 71 fathers, 87 CHB index cases, and 95 unaffected siblings).RESULTS: A case-control comparison between index cases and population-based out-of-study controls (n=1710) revealed association of CHB with 15 SNPs in the 6p21.3 MHC locus at a chromosome-wide significance of p<2.59×10(-6) (OR 2.21-3.12). In a family-based analysis of association of SNP markers as well as distinct MHC class I and II alleles with CHB, HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-Cw*05 variants were significantly more frequently transmitted to affected individuals (p<0.03 and p<0.05, respectively), while HLA-DRB1*13 and HLA-Cw*06 variants were significantly less often transmitted to affected children (p<0.04 and p<0.03). We further observed marked association of increased paternal (but not maternal) HLA-DRB1*04 transmission to affected offspring (p<0.02).CONCLUSIONS: HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-Cw*05 were identified as novel foetal HLA allele variants that confer susceptibility to CHB in response to Ro/SSA autoantibody exposure, while DRB1*13 and Cw*06 emerged as protective alleles. Additionally, we demonstrated a paternal contribution to foetal susceptibility to CHB for the first time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Bill-Axelson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in localized prostate cancer : the Scandinavian prostate cancer group-4 randomized trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874. ; 100:16, s. 1144-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The benefit of radical prostatectomy in patients with early prostate cancer has been assessed in only one randomized trial. In 2005, we reported that radical prostatectomy improved prostate cancer survival compared with watchful waiting after a median of 8.2 years of follow-up. We now report results after 3 more years of follow-up. METHODS: From October 1, 1989, through February 28, 1999, 695 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy (n = 347) or watchful waiting (n = 348). Follow-up was complete through December 31, 2006, with histopathologic review and blinded evaluation of causes of death. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up (range = 3 weeks to 17.2 years), 137 men in the surgery group and 156 in the watchful waiting group died (P = .09). For 47 of the 347 men (13.5%) who were randomly assigned to surgery and 68 of the 348 men (19.5%) who were not, death was due to prostate cancer. The difference in cumulative incidence of death due to prostate cancer remained stable after about 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 12.5% of the surgery group and 17.9% of the watchful waiting group had died of prostate cancer (difference = 5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 11.1%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.45 to 0.94; P = .03). The difference in cumulative incidence of distant metastases did not increase beyond 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 19.3% of men in the surgery group and 26% of men in the watchful waiting group had been diagnosed with distant metastases (difference = 6.7%, 95% CI = 0.2 to 13.2%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.47 to 0.88; P = .006). Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy, those with extracapsular tumor growth had 14 times the risk of prostate cancer death as those without it (RR = 14.2, 95% CI = 3.3 to 61.8; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Radical prostatectomy reduces prostate cancer mortality and risk of metastases with little or no further increase in benefit 10 or more years after surgery.
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8.
  • Dahlgren, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Planning Rescue Services with Non-Stationary Rescue Units
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Fire Technology. - Springer Netherlands. - 0015-2684. ; 45:3, s. 239-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Geographical accessibility is fundamental when planning rescue services. At present there are several programs for computing the accessibility of stationary rescue units. This study suggests a method for evaluating geographic accessibility in scenarios containing also non-stationary units. The method supports the planning process by matching the risk of an incident occurring with the rescue units’ capabilities and accessibility. The method is implemented in the computer program Rescue Unit Planner. The result of the analysis is presented in thematic maps and graphs as level of coverage, mean response time and concentration. The method and the computer program have been evaluated in two case studies: one urban area in southern Sweden and one rural area in northern Sweden. The case studies show that that this method can be useful in the rescue service planning process.
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10.
  • Gilbert, M. Thomas P., et al. (författare)
  • Paleo-Eskimo mtDNA genome reveals matrilineal discontinuity in Greenland
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 320:5884, s. 1787-1789
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Paleo- Eskimo Saqqaq and Independence I cultures, documented from archaeological remains in Northern Canada and Greenland, represent the earliest human expansion into the New World's northern extremes. However, their origin and genetic relationship to later cultures are unknown. We sequenced a mitochondrial genome from a Paleo- Eskimo human by using 3400- to 4500- year- old frozen hair excavated from an early Greenlandic Saqqaq settlement. The sample is distinct from modern Native Americans and Neo- Eskimos, falling within haplogroup D2a1, a group previously observed among modern Aleuts and Siberian Sireniki Yuit. This result suggests that the earliest migrants into the New World's northern extremes derived from populations in the Bering Sea area and were not directly related to Native Americans or the later Neo- Eskimos that replaced them.
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