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Sökning: WFRF:(Berglund M) > Kaaks Rudolf > Hallmans Göran > Panico Salvatore

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1.
  • Sieri, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. - AMER SOC CLINICAL NUTRITION. - 0002-9165. ; 88:5, s. 1304-1312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results with respect to an association of dietary fat with breast cancer. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between fat consumption and breast cancer. Design: We prospectively investigated fat consumption in a large (n = 319 826), geographically and culturally heterogeneous cohort of European women enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who completed a dietary questionnaire. After a mean of 8.8 y of follow-up, 7119 women developed breast cancer. Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age and center and adjusted for energy intake and confounders, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer. Results: An association between high saturated fat intake and greater breast cancer risk was found HR = 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.27; P for trend = 0.038) for the highest quintile of saturated fat intake compared with the lowest quintile: 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) for a 20% increase in saturated fat consumption (continuous variable). No significant association of breast cancer with total, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fat was found, although trends were for a direct association of risk with monounsaturated fat and an inverse association with polyunsaturated fat. In menopausal women, the positive association with saturated fat was confined to nonusers of hormone therapy at baseline 1.21 (0.99, 1.48) for the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile; P for trend = 0.044; and 1.03 (1.00, 1.07) for a 20% increase in saturated fat as a continuous variable. Conclusions: Evidence indicates a weak positive association between saturated fat intake and breast cancer risk. This association was more pronounced for postmenopausal women who never used hormone therapy. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: 1304-12.
2.
  • Gonzalez, Carlos A, et al. (författare)
  • Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 98:5, s. 345-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Dietary factors are thought to have an important role in gastric and esophageal carcinogenesis, but evidence from cohort studies for such a role is lacking. We examined the risks of gastric cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with meat consumption within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: A total of 521,457 men and women aged 35-70 years in 10 European countries participated in the EPIC cohort. Dietary and lifestyle information was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine associations between meat intake and risks of cardia and gastric non-cardia cancers and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Data from a calibration substudy were used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. In a nested case-control study, we examined interactions between Helicobacter pylori infection status (i.e., plasma H. pylori antibodies) and meat intakes. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, 330 gastric adenocarcinoma and 65 esophageal adenocarcinomas were diagnosed. Gastric non-cardia cancer risk was statistically significantly associated with intakes of total meat (calibrated HR per 100-g/day increase = 3.52; 95% CI = 1.96 to 6.34), red meat (calibrated HR per 50-g/day increase = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.88), and processed meat (calibrated HR per 50-g/day increase = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.43 to 4.21). The association between the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer and total meat intake was especially large in H. pylori-infected subjects (odds ratio per 100-g/day increase = 5.32; 95% CI = 2.10 to 13.4). Intakes of total, red, or processed meat were not associated with the risk of gastric cardia cancer. A positive but non-statistically significant association was observed between esophageal adenocarcinoma cancer risk and total and processed meat intake in the calibrated model. In this study population, the absolute risk of development of gastric adenocarcinoma within 10 years for a study subject aged 60 years was 0.26% for the lowest quartile of total meat intake and 0.33% for the highest quartile of total meat intake. CONCLUSION: Total, red, and processed meat intakes were associated with an increased risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, especially in H. pylori antibody-positive subjects, but not with cardia gastric cancer.
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4.
  • Airoldi, Luisa, et al. (författare)
  • 4-Aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adducts and risk of smoking-related disease in never smokers and former smokers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 14:9, s. 2118-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure i.e, 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin (4-ABP-Hb) adducts were predictive of the risk of tobacco-related cancers and diseases. We did a case control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, involving 190 controls and 149 cases (incident cancer of the lung, bladder, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity, leukemias, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths). All individuals were never smokers or ex smokers for > 10 years. 4-ABP-Hb adducts were analyzed in peripheral blood collected before the onset of the disease (median, 7 years). Overall, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher, although not statistically significantly so, in cases (as a whole) than controls. In the control population, high fruit and vegetable consumption significantly lowered the frequency of detectable adducts (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.025). Restricting the analysis to women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher in cases than controls (Mann-Whitney P = 0.036) and the odds ratio (OR) for the presence/absence of adducts was 2.42 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.18-4.981. Moreover, the association of adducts with the individual cancer types was stronger in women than in the whole study population, although statistically significant only for leukemias (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.20). The results provide some evidence that women may be more susceptible to environmental tobacco smoke, as suggested by their higher adduct levels. The most important finding of this prospective study is that, at least in women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts may help identify subjects at high risk of cancers related to environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
5.
  • Bingham, Sheila A, et al. (författare)
  • Is the association with fiber from foods in colorectal cancer confounded by folate intake?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 14:6, s. 1552-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of multivariate adjustment including folate on the strong protective effect of fiber in foods on colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition was investigated in 1,721 cases identified in the latest follow-up. The inclusion of an additional 656 cases confirmed our previously published results, with a strong and significant reduction in colorectal cancer risk of similar to 9% for each uncalibrated quintile increase in fiber (P-linear trend < 0.001) compared with an 8% reduction in our previous report, which had not been adjusted for folate. Inclusion of the other covariates (physical activity, alcohol, smoking, and red and processed meat) confirmed this significant inverse association for colon cancer and strengthened the association with left-sided colon cancer (P < 0.001). After maximum adjustment, the association between fiber and rectal cancer was not significant, as in our previous analysis. The association with fiber from different food sources was analyzed, but again, there were no significance trends after maximum adjustment.
6.
  • Cust, Anne E, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 166:8, s. 912-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant associations with endometrial cancer risk for increasing quartile intakes of any of the exposure variables. However, in continuous models calibrated by using 24-hour recall values, the multivariable relative risks were 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.45) per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic load, and 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.76) per 50 g/day of total sugars. These associations were stronger among women who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy compared with ever users (total carbohydrates P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy.
7.
  • Danesh, John, et al. (författare)
  • EPIC-Heart : the cardiovascular component of a prospective study of nutritional, lifestyle and biological factors in 520,000 middle-aged participants from 10 European countries.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal Epidemiology. - 0393-2990. ; 22:2, s. 129-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • EPIC-Heart is the cardiovascular component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC), a multi-centre prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between nutrition and major chronic disease outcomes. Its objective is to advance understanding about the separate and combined influences of lifestyle ( especially dietary), environmental, metabolic and genetic factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases by making best possible use of the unusually informative database and biological samples in EPIC. Between 1992 and 2000, 519,978 participants ( 366,521 women and 153,457 men, mostly aged 35 - 70 years) in 23 centres in 10 European countries commenced follow-up for causespecific mortality, cancer incidence and major cardiovascular morbidity. Dietary information was collected with quantitative questionnaires or semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires, including a 24-h dietary recall sub-study to help calibrate the dietary measurements. Information was collected on physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, occupational history, socio-economic status, and history of previous illnesses. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure recordings were made in the majority of participants. Blood samples were taken from 385,747 individuals, from which plasma, serum, red cells, and buffy coat fractions were separated and aliquoted for long-term storage. By 2004, an estimated 10,000 incident fatal and non-fatal coronary and stroke events had been recorded. The first cycle of EPIC-Heart analyses will assess associations of coronary mortality with several prominent dietary hypotheses and with established cardiovascular risk factors. Subsequent analyses will extend this approach to non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes and to further dietary, biochemical and genetic factors.
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8.
  • Gormally, Emmanuelle, et al. (författare)
  • Amount of DNA in plasma and cancer risk : a prospective study.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 111:5, s. 746-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of plasma DNA concentrations in cancer patients have been shown to be higher than the plasma DNA concentrations found in healthy subjects. The value of plasma DNA levels for development of neoplastic or pulmonary disease was evaluated in a large prospective study. Plasma samples (n = 1, 184) were analyzed from 776 controls, 359 cases of cancer (lung, bladder, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, leukemia) and 49 deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including never smokers and ex-smokers, from 9 countries across Europe. The amount of plasma DNA was variable across the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) centers. High DNA concentrations in some centers might be due to the type of population recruited and/or the treatment of the samples. An elevated and statistically significant odds ratio (OR) was found for COPID deaths (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.06-6.02), while nonsignificant increased ORs were present for oral cancers, cancers of the pharynx and larynx and leukemia. When the analyses were stratified by time since recruitment (below or above 36 months), the increased ORs were limited to the more recent period of recruitment, i.e., a time elapsed between blood drawing and disease onset lower than 36 months. This was particularly true for COPID deaths (OR = 12.7; 95% CI = 1.57-103) and leukemia (OR = 2.37; 95% Cl = 1.20-4.67). (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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9.
  • Linseisen, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: Updated information from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER. - WILEY-LISS. - 0020-7136. ; 121:5, s. 1103-1114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence was evaluated using the most recent data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), applying a refined statistical approach (calibration) to account for measurement error potentially introduced by using food frequency questionnaire data. Between 1992 and 2000, detailed information on diet and life-style of 478,590 individuals participating in EPIC was collected. During a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,126 lung cancer cases were observed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were applied for statistical evaluation. In the whole study population, fruit consumption was significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk while no association was found for vegetable consumption. In current smokers, however, lung cancer risk significantly decreased with higher vegetable consumption; this association became more pronounced after calibration, the hazard ratio (HR) being 0.78 (95% CI 0.620.98) per 100 g increase in daily vegetable consumption. In comparison, the HR per 100 g fruit was 0.92 (0.85-0.99) in the entire cohort and 0.90 (0.81-0.99) in smokers. Exclusion of cases diagnosed during the first 2 years of follow-up strengthened these associations, the HR being 0.71 (0.55-0.94) for vegetables (smokers) and 0.86 (0.78-0.95) for fruit (entire cohort). Cancer incidence decreased with higher consumption of apples and pears (entire cohort) as well as root vegetables (smokers). In addition to an overall inverse association with fruit intake, the results of this evaluation add evidence for a significant inverse association of vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence in smokers. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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10.
  • Noethlings, Ute, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of vegetables, legumes, and fruit, and risk for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in a European diabetic population
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition. - American Society for Nutrition. - 0022-3166. ; 138:4, s. 775-781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined the associations of intake of vegetables, legumes and fruit with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a population with prevalent diabetes in Europe. A cohort of 10,449 participants with self-reported diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study was followed for a mean of 9 y. Intakes of vegetables, legumes, and fruit were assessed at baseline between 1992 and 2000 using validated country-specific questionnaires. A total of 1346 deaths occurred. Multivariate relative risks (RR) for all-cause mortality were estimated in Cox regression models and FIR for cause-specific mortality were derived in a competing risk model. An increment in intake of total vegetables, legumes, and fruit of 80 g/d was associated with a RR of death from all causes of 0.94 95% CI 0.90-0.98. Analyzed separately, vegetables and legumes were associated with a significantly reduced risk, whereas nonsignificant inverse associations for fruit intake were observed. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and mortality due to non-CVD/non-cancer causes were significantly inversely associated with intake of total vegetables, legumes, and fruit (RR 0.88 95% CI 0.81-0.95 and 0.90 0.82-0.99, respectively) but not cancer mortality 0.08 0.99-1.17). Intake of vegetables, legumes, and fruit was associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality in a diabetic population. The findings support the current state of evidence from general population studies that the protective potential of vegetable and fruit intake is larger for CVD than for cancer and suggest that diabetes patients may benefit from a diet high in vegetables and fruits.
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