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Sökning: WFRF:(Blixt A) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Hinkula, Jorma, et al. (författare)
  • Immunization with DNA Plasmids Coding for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Capsid and Envelope Proteins and/or Virus-Like Particles Induces Protection and Survival in Challenged Mice
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virology. - : AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY. - 0022-538X .- 1098-5514. ; 91:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a bunyavirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever disease in humans, with high mortality rates. The requirement of a high-containment laboratory and the lack of an animal model hampered the study of the immune response and protection of vaccine candidates. Using the recently developed interferon alpha receptor knockout (IFNAR(- / -)) mouse model, which replicates human disease, we investigated the immunogenicity and protection of two novel CCHFV vaccine candidates: a DNA vaccine encoding a ubiquitin-linked version of CCHFV Gc, Gn, and N and one using transcriptionally competent virus-like particles (tc-VLPs). In contrast to most studies that focus on neutralizing antibodies, we measured both humoral and cellular immune responses. We demonstrated a clear and 100% efficient preventive immunity against lethal CCHFV challenge with the DNA vaccine. Interestingly, there was no correlation with the neutralizing antibody titers alone, which were higher in the tc-VLP-vaccinated mice. However, the animals with a lower neutralizing titer, but a dominant cell-mediated Th1 response and a balanced Th2 response, resisted the CCHFV challenge. Moreover, we found that in challenged mice with a Th1 response (immunized by DNA/DNA and boosted by tc-VLPs), the immune response changed to Th2 at day 9 postchallenge. In addition, we were able to identify new linear B-cell epitope regions that are highly conserved between CCHFV strains. Altogether, our results suggest that a predominantly Th1-type immune response provides the most efficient protective immunity against CCHFV challenge. However, we cannot exclude the importance of the neutralizing antibodies as the surviving immunized mice exhibited substantial amounts of them. IMPORTANCE Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is responsible for hemorrhagic diseases in humans, with a high mortality rate. There is no FDAapproved vaccine, and there are still gaps in our knowledge of the immune responses to infection. The recently developed mouse models mimic human CCHF disease and are useful to study the immunogenicity and the protection by vaccine candidates. Our study shows that mice vaccinated with a specific DNA vaccine were fully protected. Importantly, we show that neutralizing antibodies are not sufficient for protection against CCHFV challenge but that an extra Th1-specific cellular response is required. Moreover, we describe the identification of five conserved B-cell epitopes, of which only one was previously known, that could be of great importance for the development of diagnostics tools and the improvement of vaccine candidates.
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  • Baker, Tim, et al. (författare)
  • Single Deranged Physiologic Parameters Are Associated With Mortality in a Low-Income Country
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Critical Care Medicine. - 0090-3493 .- 1530-0293. ; 43:10, s. 2171-2179
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate whether deranged physiologic parameters at admission to an ICU in Tanzania are associated with in-hospital mortality and compare single deranged physiologic parameters to a more complex scoring system. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study of patient notes and admission records. Data were collected on vital signs at admission to the ICU, patient characteristics, and outcomes. Cutoffs for deranged physiologic parameters were defined a priori and their association with in-hospital mortality was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Setting: ICU at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients: All adults admitted to the ICU in a 15-month period. Measurements and Main Results: Two hundred sixty-nine patients were included: 54% female, median age 35 years. In-hospital mortality was 50%. At admission, 69% of patients had one or more deranged physiologic parameter. Sixty-four percent of the patients with a deranged physiologic parameter died in hospital compared with 18% without (p < 0.001). The presence of a deranged physiologic parameter was associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.95-11.09). Mortality increased with increasing number of deranged physiologic parameters (odds ratio per deranged physiologic parameter, 2.24 [1.53-3.26]). Every individual deranged physiologic parameter was associated with mortality with unadjusted odds ratios between 1.92 and 16.16. A National Early Warning Score of greater than or equal to 7 had an association with mortality (odds ratio, 2.51 [1.23-5.14]). Conclusion: Single deranged physiologic parameters at admission are associated with mortality in a critically ill population in a low-income country. As a measure of illness severity, single deranged physiologic parameters are as useful as a compound scoring system in this setting and could be termed danger signs. Danger signs may be suitable for the basis of routines to identify and treat critically ill patients.
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  • Green, Jonathan M. H., et al. (författare)
  • Research priorities for managing the impacts and dependencies of business upon food, energy, water and the environment
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Sustainability Science. - 1862-4065 .- 1862-4057. ; 12:2, s. 319-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delivering access to sufficient food, energy and water resources to ensure human wellbeing is a major concern for governments worldwide. However, it is crucial to account for the 'nexus' of interactions between these natural resources and the consequent implications for human wellbeing. The private sector has a critical role in driving positive change towards more sustainable nexus management and could reap considerable benefits from collaboration with researchers to devise solutions to some of the foremost sustainability challenges of today. Yet opportunities are missed because the private sector is rarely involved in the formulation of deliverable research priorities. We convened senior research scientists and influential business leaders to collaboratively identify the top forty questions that, if answered, would best help companies understand and manage their food-energy-water-environment nexus dependencies and impacts. Codification of the top order nexus themes highlighted research priorities around development of pragmatic yet credible tools that allow businesses to incorporate nexus interactions into their decision-making; demonstration of the business case for more sustainable nexus management; identification of the most effective levers for behaviour change; and understanding incentives or circumstances that allow individuals and businesses to take a leadership stance. Greater investment in the complex but productive relations between the private sector and research community will create deeper and more meaningful collaboration and cooperation.
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