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Sökning: WFRF:(Boeing Heiner) > (2005-2009)

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41.
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42.
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43.
  • Hart, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Diet in the aetiology of ulcerative colitis: A European prospective cohort study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Digestion. - Karger. - 1421-9867. ; 77:1, s. 57-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of nutrients and the development of ulcerative colitis in a cohort study. Methods: The study population was 260,686 men and women aged 20-80 years, participating in a large European prospective cohort study (EPIC). Participants were residents in the UK, Sweden, Denmark, Germany or Italy. Information on diet was supplied and the subjects were followed up for the development of ulcerative colitis. Each incident case was matched with four controls and dietary variables were divided into quartiles. Results: A total of 139 subjects with incident ulcerative colitis were identified. No dietary associations were detected, apart from a marginally significant positive association with an increasing percentage intake of energy from total polyunsaturated fatty acids (trend across quartiles OR = 1.19 (95% CI = 0.99-1.43) p = 0.07). Conclusions: No associations between ulcerative colitis and diet were detected, apart from a possible increased risk with a higher total polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. A biological mechanism exists in that polyunsaturated fatty acids are metabolised to pro-inflammatory mediators.
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44.
  • Huth, Cornelia, et al. (författare)
  • IL6 gene promoter polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes - Joint analysis of individual participants' data from 21 studies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: DIABETES. - 0012-1797. ; 55:10, s. 2915-2921
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several lines of evidence indicate a causal role of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 in the development of type 2 diabetes in humans. Two common polymorphisms in the promoter of the IL-6 encoding gene IL6, -174G > C (rs1800795) and -573G > C (rs1800796), have been investigated for association with type 2 diabetes in numerous studies but with results that have been largely equivocal. To clarify the relationship between the two IL6 variants and type 2 diabetes, we analyzed individual data on > 20,000 participants from 21 published and unpublished studies. Collected data represent eight different countries, making this the largest association analysis for type 2 diabetes reported to date. The GC and CC genotypes of IL6 -174G > C were associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 0.91, P = 0.037), corresponding to a risk modification of nearly 9%. No evidence for association was found between IL6 -573G > C and type 2 diabetes. The observed association of the IL6 -174 C-allele with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes provides further evidence for the hypothesis that immune mediators are causally related to type 2 diabetes; however, because the association is borderline significant, additional data are still needed to confirm this finding.
45.
  • Huth, Cornelia, et al. (författare)
  • Joint analysis of individual participants' data from 17 studies on the association of the IL6 variant -174G>C with circulating glucose levels, interleukin-6 levels, and body mass index.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Annals of medicine. - 1365-2060. ; 41:2, s. 128-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Several studies have investigated associations between the -174GC single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1800795) of the IL6 gene and phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but presented inconsistent results. Aims. This joint analysis aimed to clarify whether IL6 -174GC was associated with glucose and circulating interleukin-6 concentrations as well as body mass index (BMI). Methods. Individual-level data from all studies of the IL6-T2DM consortium on Caucasian subjects with available BMI were collected. As study-specific estimates did not show heterogeneity (P0.1), they were combined by using the inverse-variance fixed-effect model. Results. The main analysis included 9440, 7398, 24,117, or 5659 non-diabetic and manifest T2DM subjects for fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, BMI, or circulating interleukin-6 levels, respectively. IL6 -174 C-allele carriers had significantly lower fasting glucose (-0.091 mmol/L, P=0.014). There was no evidence for association between IL6 -174GC and BMI or interleukin-6 levels, except in some subgroups. Conclusions. Our data suggest that C-allele carriers of the IL6 -174GC polymorphism have lower fasting glucose levels on average, which substantiates previous findings of decreased T2DM risk of these subjects.
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46.
  • Jakszyn, Paula, et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334. ; 27:7, s. 1497-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521 457 individuals and 314 incident cases of GC that had occurred after 6.6 average years of follow-up. An index of endogenous NOC (ENOC) formation was estimated using data of the iron content from meat intake and faecal apparent total NOC formation according to previous published studies. Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and vitamin C levels were measured in a sub-sample of cases and matched controls included in a nested case-control within the cohort. Exposure to NDMA was < 1 mu g on average compared with 93 mu g on average from ENOC. There was no association between NDMA intake and GC risk (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.7-1.43). ENOC was significantly associated with non-cardia cancer risk (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.78 for an increase of 40 mu g/day) but not with cardia cancer (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.69-1.33). Although the number of not infected cases is low, our data suggest a possible interaction between ENOC and H.pylori infection (P for interaction = 0.09). Moreover, we observed an interaction between plasma vitamin C and ENOC (P < 0.02). ENOC formation may account for our previously reported association between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk.
47.
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48.
  • Jenab, Mazda, et al. (författare)
  • CDH1 gene polymorphisms, smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - IFAC & Elsevier Ltd.. - 1879-0852. ; 44:6, s. 774-780
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. E-Cadherin is an adhesion molecule that is thought to be involved in GC. Germline mutations in the E-Cadherin gene (CDH1) have been identified in hereditary diffuse GC. Also, a promoter polymorphism at position 160 C/A has been suggested to lead to transcriptional down regulation and has been shown to affect GC risk in some studies. However, very little information exists on the GC risk association of other CDH1 polymorphisms and it is unclear whether any associations may be different by GC anatomical sites or histological types. Thus, a case-control study (cases = 245/controls = 950) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort was conducted to assess the GC risk association of eight CDH1 gene polymorphisms. None of the CDH1 polymorphisms or haplotypes analysed were associated with GC risk and no differences of effect were observed by Helicobacter pylori infection status. However, three CDH1 polymorphisms in the same haplotype block, including the CDH1-160C/A, interacted with smoking to increase GC risk in smokers but not in never smokers. These findings should be confirmed in larger independent studies.
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49.
  • Jenab, Mazda, et al. (författare)
  • Consumption and portion sizes of tree nuts, peanuts and seeds in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts from 10 European countries
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - 0007-1145. ; 96:S2, s. 12-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tree nuts, peanuts and seeds are nutrient dense foods whose intake has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of some chronic diseases. They are regularly consumed in European diets either as whole, in spreads or from hidden sources (e.g. commercial products). However, little is known about their intake profiles or differences in consumption between European countries or geographic regions. The objective of this study was to analyse the population mean intake and average portion sizes in subjects reporting intake of nuts and seeds consumed as whole, derived from hidden sources or from spreads. Data was obtained from standardised 24-hour dietary recalls collected from 36 994 subjects in 10 different countries that are part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Overall, for nuts and seeds consumed as whole, the percentage of subjects reporting intake on the day of the recall was: tree nuts=4 center dot 4%, peanuts=2 center dot 3 % and seeds=1 center dot 3 %. The data show a clear northern (Sweden: mean intake=0 center dot 15 g/d, average portion size=15 center dot 1 g/d) to southern (Spain: mean intake=2 center dot 99 g/d, average portion size=34 center dot 7 g/d) European gradient of whole tree nut intake. The three most popular tree nuts were walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts, respectively. In general, tree nuts were more widely consumed than peanuts or seeds. In subjects reporting intake, men consumed a significantly higher average portion size of tree nuts (28 center dot 5 v. 23 center dot 1 g/d, P &lt; 0 center dot 01) and peanuts (46 center dot 1 v. 35 center dot 1 g/d, P &lt; 0 center dot 01) per day than women. These data may be useful in devising research initiatives and health policy strategies based on the intake of this food group.
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50.
  • Jenab, Mazda, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma and dietary vitamin C levels and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST).
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334. ; 27:11, s. 2250-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin C is an antioxidant and inhibitor of carcinogenic N-nitroso compound production in the stomach. Higher dietary vitamin C consumption is associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer (GC) in numerous case-control studies, but data from prospective studies are limited, particularly so for blood measures of vitamin C. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma and dietary vitamin C levels with the risk of GC in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort involving 10 European countries. Using a fluorometric method, vitamin C was measured in pre-diagnostic plasma from 215 GC cases (matched controls = 416). Conditional logistic regression models adjusted by body mass index, total energy intake, smoking status/duration/intensity and Helicobacter pylori infection status were used to estimate relative cancer risks. No association with GC risk was observed for dietary vitamin C, whereas an inverse GC risk was observed in the highest versus lowest quartile of plasma vitamin C [odds ratio (OR) = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31-0.97, P(trend) = 0.043], which was maintained after exclusion of cases with <or=2 years follow-up (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.83, P(trend) = 0.064). The inverse association was more pronounced in subjects consuming higher levels of red and processed meats, a factor that may increase endogenous N-nitroso compound production. The effect of plasma vitamin C was not different by GC anatomical subsite (cardia/non-cardia) or histological subtype (diffuse/intestinal), and there was no significant interaction of effect with H.pylori. The results of this study show, in a prospective setting, an inverse association of GC risk with high levels of plasma vitamin C and suggest an interaction with the intake of red and processed meats, whose consumption may elevate endogenous N-nitroso compound production.
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