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Sökning: WFRF:(Boerner T.)

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1.
  • Ahrens, Maryon, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the Atmospheric nu(e) Spectrum with IceCube
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998. ; 91:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the atmospheric nu(e) spectrum at energies between 0.1 and 100 TeV using data from the first year of the complete IceCube detector. Atmospheric nu(e) originate mainly from the decays of kaons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. This analysis selects 1078 fully contained events in 332 days of live time, and then identifies those consistent with particle showers. A likelihood analysis with improved event selection extends our previous measurement of the conventional v(e) fluxes to higher energies. The data constrain the conventional nu(e) flux to be 1.3(-0.3)(+0.4) times a baseline prediction from a Honda's calculation, including the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. A fit to the kaon contribution (xi) to the neutrino flux finds a kaon component that is xi = 1.3(-0.4)(+0.5) times the baseline value. The fitted/measured prompt neutrino flux from charmed hadron decays strongly depends on the assumed astrophysical flux and shape. If the astrophysical component follows a power law, the result for the prompt flux is 0.0(-0.0)(+3.0) times a calculated flux based on the work by Enberg, Reno, and Sarcevic.
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2.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • A COMBINED MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS OF THE HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICAL NEUTRINO FLUX MEASURED WITH ICECUBE
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 809:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evidence for an extraterrestrial flux of high-energy neutrinos has now been found in multiple searches with the IceCube detector. The first solid evidence was provided by a search for neutrino events with deposited energies greater than or similar to 30 TeV and interaction vertices inside the instrumented volume. Recent analyses suggest that the extraterrestrial flux extends to lower energies and is also visible with throughgoing, nu(mu)-induced tracks from the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we combine the results from six different IceCube searches for astrophysical neutrinos in a maximum-likelihood analysis. The combined event sample features high-statistics samples of shower-like and track-like events. The data are fit in up to three observables: energy, zenith angle, and event topology. Assuming the astrophysical neutrino flux to be isotropic and to consist of equal flavors at Earth, the all-flavor spectrum with neutrino energies between 25 TeV and 2.8 PeV is well described by an unbroken power law with best-fit spectral index -2.50 +/- 0.09 and a flux at 100 TeV of (6.7(-1.2)(+1.1)) x 10(-18) GeV-1 s(-1) sr(-1) cm(-2). Under the same assumptions, an unbroken power law with index -2 is disfavored with a significance of 3.8 sigma (p = 0.0066%) with respect to the best fit. This significance is reduced to 2.1 sigma (p = 1.7%) if instead we compare the best fit to a spectrum with index -2 that has an exponential cut-off at high energies. Allowing the electron-neutrino flux to deviate from the other two flavors, we find a nu(e) fraction of 0.18 +/- 0.11 at Earth. The sole production of electron neutrinos, which would be characteristic of neutron-decay-dominated sources, is rejected with a significance of 3.6 sigma ( p = 0.014%).
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3.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos from the Northern Sky with IceCube
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007. ; 115:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere data set consisting primarily of nu(e) and nu(tau) charged-current and neutral-current ( cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35 000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky is extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of live time recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7 sigma significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Phi(E-nu) = 9.9(-3.4)(+3.9) x 10(-19) GeV-1 cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1) (E-nu/100 TeV)(-2), consistent with IceCube's Southern-Hemisphere-dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index is performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2(-0.2)(+0.2), which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result.
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4.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for dark matter annihilation in the Galactic Center with IceCube-79
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 75:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Milky Way is expected to be embedded in a halo of dark matter particles, with the highest density in the central region, and decreasing density with the halo-centric radius. Dark matter might be indirectly detectable at Earth through a flux of stable particles generated in dark matter annihilations and peaked in the direction of the Galactic Center. We present a search for an excess flux of muon (anti-) neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Galactic Center using the cubic-kilometer-sized IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole. There, the Galactic Center is always seen above the horizon. Thus, new and dedicated veto techniques against atmospheric muons are required to make the southern hemisphere accessible for IceCube. We used 319.7 live-days of data from IceCube operating in its 79-string configuration during 2010 and 2011. No neutrino excess was found and the final result is compatible with the background. We present upper limits on the self-annihilation cross-section, < sAv >, for WIMP masses ranging from 30GeV up to 10TeV, assuming cuspy (NFW) and flat-cored (Burkert) dark matter halo profiles, reaching down to similar or equal to 4 . 10(-24) cm(3) s(-1), and similar or equal to 2.6 . 10(-23) cm(3) s(-1) for the nu(nu) over bar channel, respectively.
5.
  • Ahrens, Maryon, et al. (författare)
  • The Detection Of A Sn Iin In Optical Follow-Up Observations Of Icecube Neutrino Events
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 811:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In 2012 March, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) PTF12csy was found 0.degrees 2 away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0.degrees 54. It has a redshift of z = 0.0684, corresponding to a luminosity distance of about 300 Mpc and the Pan-STARRS1 survey shows that its explosion time was at least 158 days (in host galaxy rest frame) before the neutrino alert, so that a causal connection is unlikely. The a posteriori significance of the chance detection of both the neutrinos and the SN at any epoch is 2.2 sigma within IceCube's 2011/12 data acquisition season. Also, a complementary neutrino analysis reveals no long-term signal over the course of one year. Therefore, we consider the SN detection coincidental and the neutrinos uncorrelated to the SN. However, the SN is unusual and interesting by itself: it is luminous and energetic, bearing strong resemblance to the SN IIn 2010jl, and shows signs of interaction of the SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. High-energy neutrino emission is expected in models of diffusive shock acceleration, but at a low, non-detectable level for this specific SN. In this paper, we describe the SN PTF12csy and present both the neutrino and electromagnetic data, as well as their analysis.
6.
  • Meyer, H., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics results from MAST
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515. ; 49:10, s. 104017
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several improvements to the MAST plant and diagnostics have facilitated new studies advancing the physics basis for ITER and DEMO, as well as for future spherical tokamaks (STs). Using the increased heating capabilities P-NBI <= 3.8 MW H-mode at I-P = 1.2 MA was accessed showing that the energy confinement on MAST scales more weakly with I-P and more strongly with B-t than in the ITER IPB98(y, 2) scaling. Measurements of the fuel retention of shallow pellets extrapolate to an ITER particle throughput of 70% of its original designed total throughput capacity. The anomalous momentum diffusion, chi(phi), is linked to the ion diffusion, chi(i), with a Prandtl number close to P-phi approximate to chi(phi)/chi(i) approximate to 1, although chi(i) approaches neoclassical values. New high spatial resolution measurements of the edge radial electric field, E-r, show that the position of steepest gradients in electron pressure and E-r (i.e. shearing rate) are coincident, but their magnitudes are not linked. The T-e pedestal width on MAST scales with root beta(ped)(pol) rather than rho(pol). The edge localized mode (ELM) frequency for type-IV ELMs, new in MAST, was almost doubled using n = 2 resonant magnetic perturbations from a set of four external coils (n = 1, 2). A new internal 12 coil set (n <= 3) has been commissioned. The filaments in the inter-ELM and L-mode phase are different from ELM filaments, and the characteristics in L-mode agree well with turbulence calculations. A variety of fast particle driven instabilities were studied from 10 kHz saturated fishbone like activity up to 3.8 MHz compressional Alfven eigenmodes. Fast particle instabilities also affect the off-axis NBI current drive, leading to fast ion diffusion of the order of 0.5 m(2) s(-1) and a reduction in the driven current fraction from 40% to 30%. EBW current drive start-up is demonstrated for the first time in a ST generating plasma currents up to 55 kA. Many of these studies contributed to the physics basis of a planned upgrade to MAST.
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7.
  • Ghaemi, Hirad, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • CLEAN technique in strip-map SAR for high-quality imaging
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference 2009. ; s. 1-7
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The maximum obtainable resolution of a strip-map synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system can be retained by simply avoiding weighting, or tapering, data samples in the along-track compression process. However, this will lead to hazardous artifacts caused by strong sidelobes of the corresponding adjacent scatterers whose interference might severely weaken the desired targets or even introduce false targets. On the other hand, some residual artifacts, even after tapering process, may still deteriorate the quality (contrast) of the SAR image. These issues can be remedied by applying the so-called CLEAN technique, which can mitigate these ill-effects in strip-map SAR imagery while maintaining the maximum resolution. This, indeed, is carried out as a post processing step, i.e., after the azimuth compression is accomplished, in the SAR system. The objective of this paper is to extend the CLEAN technique to strip-map SAR system to produce high-quality images with a very good along-track resolution. The algorithm is then applied to data from a ground-based circular SAR (CSAR) system to verify its implementation as well as this new application of the CLEAN technique.
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8.
  • Ghaemi, Hirad, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • RELAX-based autofocus algorithm for high-resolution strip-map SAR
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of IEEE Radar Conference 2009. ; s. 1-6
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses the non-iterative quality phase gradient autofocus (QPGA) technique which was originally proposed to remove one-dimensional phase errors in spotlight-mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. By enriching the source pool, the method is modified in a way suitable for autofocus in stripmap-mode SAR system with the advantage of being independent of any priori assumptions. Unlike the QPGA the potential candidates, i.e., dominant scatterers located along azimuth in each specific range bin, are automatically selected by exploiting the one-dimensional RELAX algorithm. Furthermore, RELAX is capable of estimating the size of blur window which is, in fact, associated with the Doppler spread of signal spectrum. The corresponding model includes four parameters i.e., complex amplitude, delay, Doppler center and spectral width. The proposed method has been applied to data extracted by a ground-based rotating coherent Doppler radar operating in strip-mapping mode SAR, with the aim of high-resolution clutter detection.
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